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Egyptian Papyrus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Papyrus

Papyrus is a plant (cyperus papyrus) which once grew in abundance, primarily in the wilds of the Egyptian Delta but also elsewhere in the Nile River Valley, but is now quite rare. Papyrus buds opened from a horizontal root growing in shallow...
Ancient Celtic Religion
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Celtic Religion

The polytheistic religion of the ancient Celts in Iron Age Europe remains obscure for lack of written records, but archaeology and accounts by classical authors help us to piece together a number of the key gods, sacred sites, and cult practices...
Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Definitionby Priscila Scoville

Egyptian Hieroglyphs

The Egyptian hieroglyphic script was one of the writing systems used by ancient Egyptians to represent their language. Because of their pictorial elegance, Herodotus and other important Greeks believed that Egyptian hieroglyphs were something...
Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt

The gods of ancient Egypt were worshipped as the creators and sustainers of all life. People acknowledged their supremacy and intimacy daily through rituals, amulets, and their labor for the king. Everyone, from farmers to craftsmen to merchants...
Serapis
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Serapis

Serapis is a Graeco-Egyptian god of the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE) of Egypt developed by the monarch Ptolemy I Soter (r. 305-282 BCE) as part of his vision to unite his Egyptian and Greek subjects. Serapis’ cult later spread throughout...
God's Wife of Amun
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

God's Wife of Amun

The position of God's Wife of Amun was one of the most politically powerful and spiritually significant in later Egyptian history. Elevated from a figurehead in the New Kingdom (c.1570-1069 BCE), the God's Wife of Amun would hold power equal...
Letters to the Dead in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Letters to the Dead in Ancient Egypt

The question of what happens after death has been addressed by religious beliefs and philosophies of every world culture throughout recorded history and ancient Egypt is famous for its own response to the mysteries of the afterlife. Their...
The Five Great Kings of Egypt's Early Dynastic Period
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Five Great Kings of Egypt's Early Dynastic Period

Egypt's Early Dynastic Period (3150-2613 BCE) lay the foundation of what would become one of the most impressive civilizations of the ancient world. The kings of this era, except for Narmer and Djoser, are often overlooked but were responsible...
Mummification in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Mummification in Ancient Egypt

The practice of mummifying the dead began in ancient Egypt c. 3500 BCE. The English word mummy comes from the Latin mumia which is derived from the Persian mum meaning 'wax' and refers to an embalmed corpse which was wax-like. The idea of...
Music & Dance in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Music & Dance in Ancient Egypt

Music and dance were highly valued in ancient Egyptian culture, but they were more important than is generally thought: they were integral to creation and communion with the gods and, further, were the human response to the gift of life and...