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Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment
Article

Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment

In medieval and Renaissance Europe, dogs were considered little more than 'machines' which performed certain tasks, such as guarding a home or tracking...
Investiture Controversy
Definition

Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy, also referred to as the Investiture Contest or Investiture Dispute, was a conflict lasting from 1076 to 1122 between the...
The Celts of Ancient Europe
Collection

The Celts of Ancient Europe

In this collection, we examine in detail the Celtic peoples of ancient Europe. We look at their origins in central Europe with the Hallstatt and La...
Colonial American Currency
Article

Colonial American Currency

Colonial American currency was a work in progress from the time of the earliest English settlements of the 1600s until the United States of America...
Scottish Medieval Monarchs
Collection

Scottish Medieval Monarchs

In this collection, we present the 15 most important of the 21 monarchs to rule Scotland from the 11th to 16th century. For the first time forging a...
King's Evil
Definition

King's Evil

The king’s evil (from the Latin morbus regius meaning royal sickness), more commonly known as scrofula or medically tuberculous lymphadenitis, was a...
Pets in Colonial America
Article

Pets in Colonial America

Pets in Colonial America were kept by the colonists for the same reasons they were in Europe: for companionship and, in the case of dogs, for protection...
William Wallace
Definition

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (c. 1270-1305) was a Scottish knight and national hero who fought for his country's independence from England. Wallace famously...
Tyr
Definition

Tyr

Tyr (Old Norse: Týr) is one of the battle-gods of Norse mythology, according to the main sources on the topic, the literary works called the Eddas...
Stirling Castle
Definition

Stirling Castle

Stirling Castle, located on a strategically important rocky outcrop by the River Forth in central Scotland, was a key royal residence from the late...
The Year of the Four Emperors & the Demise of Four Roman Legions
Article

The Year of the Four Emperors & the Demise of Four Roman Legions

During the Year of the Four Emperors (69 CE), the fight between Vitellius and Vespasian would ultimately bring about the demise of four legions, the...
Top 5 'Deep-Dive' Virtual Shipwrecks
Article

Top 5 'Deep-Dive' Virtual Shipwrecks

According to UNESCO, an estimated three million shipwrecks are scattered in the oceans’ deep canyons, trenches, and coral reefs and remain undiscovered...

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