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Thirty Years' War
Definition

Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) was the last major European conflict informed by religious divisions and one of the most devastating in European history...
Gustavus Adolphus
Definition

Gustavus Adolphus

Gustavus Adolphus (l. 1594-1632; r. 1611-1632) was the King of Sweden who elevated his country to a major power in the 17th century. He also is traditionally...
Flight to Varennes
Definition

Flight to Varennes

The Flight to Varennes was a pivotal moment of the French Revolution (1789-1799), in which King Louis XVI of France (r.1774-92), his wife Queen Marie...
Ancient Afghanistan
Definition

Ancient Afghanistan

The ancient history of Afghanistan, a landlocked country in Central Asia, is full of fascinating cultures, from early nomadic tribes to the realms of...
Interview: Rome Strategy of Empire by James Lacey
Article

Interview: Rome Strategy of Empire by James Lacey

In this interview, World History Encyclopedia sits down with author James Lacey to chat about his new book Rome: Strategy of Empire published by Oxford...
Cajetan's On Faith and Works
Article

Cajetan's On Faith and Works

On Faith and Works (1532) by Cardinal Thomas Cajetan (l. c. 1468-1534) is a refutation of the central arguments of Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) concerning...
The Sixteenth-Century Massacre of the Waldensians of Mérindol
Article

The Sixteenth-Century Massacre of the Waldensians of Mérindol

As the Reformation developed in France in the first half of the 16th century, there were several episodes of severe repression which preceded the Wars...
Cardinal Thomas Cajetan
Definition

Cardinal Thomas Cajetan

Cardinal Thomas Cajetan (l.c. 1468-1534) was a Catholic theologian and philosopher best known for his disputations with Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546...
Exsurge Domine
Article

Exsurge Domine

Exsurge Domine (“Arise, O Lord” in Latin) is a papal bull issued 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X (served 1513-1521) condemning Martin Luther’s 95 Theses...
Family Planning in the Ancient Near East
Article

Family Planning in the Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East was home to a multitude of civilizations, across Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, each with unique views on medicine, conception...
Johann Eck
Definition

Johann Eck

Johann Eck (l. 1486-1543) was a Catholic theologian and writer best known for his disputations with Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) beginning in 1517 and...
Rome's Defeat at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Article

Rome's Defeat at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest

At the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, a rag-tag barbarian force annihilated three Roman legions, leaving the Roman emperor Augustus (27 BCE to...
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