Byzantine Empire Timeline

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  • 285 CE
    The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
  • 312 CE
    Constantine I introduces the gold nomisma (solidus) coin.
  • 312 CE
    Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
  • c. 330 CE - c. 379 CE
    Life of Basil Great, one of the founding fathers of the Eastern Christian Church and Byzantine Monasteries.
  • 11 May 330 CE
    Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as "the new Rome."
  • c. 331 CE
    The Great Palace of Constantinople is first built by Constantine I.
  • 360 CE
    First Hagia Sophia built in Constantinople.
  • 361 CE
    Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
  • c. 370 CE
    Basil the Great is made the bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia.
  • 376 CE
    The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 391 CE
    Emperor Theodosius I closes pagan temples.
  • 395 CE - 408 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Arkadios.
  • 395 CE
    The statue of Zeus at Olympia is removed to Constantinople.
  • 395 CE - 637 CE
    Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
  • 408 CE - 450 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.
  • 410 CE - 413 CE
    The Theodosian Walls are built to better protect Constantinople.
  • 450 CE - 457 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Marcian.
  • 8 Oct 451 CE - 1 Nov 451 CE
    Fourth Ecumenical Council takes place in Chalcedon, determining that Jesus Christ had two distinct natures and wills, perfectly united.
  • 457 CE - 474 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo I.
  • 457 CE
    Leo I is crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first Byzantine emperor to be crowned by a bishop.
  • 466 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo I gives his daughter Ariadne as a wife to the Isaurian chief Tarasicodissa (Zeno).
  • 468 CE
    A Byzantine army led by Basiliscus is defeated by the Vandals in North Africa.
  • 469 CE
    The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
  • 471 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo I conspires to murder his rival the general Aspar.
  • 474 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo II.
  • 474 CE - 491 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Zeno.
  • 475 CE - 476 CE
    Revolt of Basiliscus against Zeno in the Byzantine Empire.
  • 479 CE
    Revolt by Marcian against Zeno in the Byzantine Empire.
  • 481 CE
    Theodoric Strabo marches on Constantinople.
  • 482 CE
    Patriarch Acacius and Zeno release the Henotikon, an attempted religious compromise, which creates the Acacian Schism with Rome.
  • 484 CE - 519 CE
    Acacian Schism between the Byzantine Empire and the Pope in Rome.
  • 491 CE - 518 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
  • 491 CE - 518 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasios I.
  • c. 493 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds the Long Wall in Thrace to protect Constantinople.
  • 497 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I recognises Theodoric as the King of Italy.
  • 498 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I abolishes the chrysargyron, an unpopular tax on business transactions.
  • c. 504 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I retakes the fortress of Amida on the Persian frontier.
  • 505 CE - 507 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
  • 506 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Persians.
  • 507 CE
    Byzantine emperor Anastasios I sends Clovis I, the king of the Franks in Gaul, a fleet to aid his war with the Ostrogoths.
  • 513 CE - 515 CE
    Vitalian leads a revolt in Byzantine nThrace.
  • 518 CE - 527 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin I.
  • 525 CE
    Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
  • 527 CE - 565 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 527 CE - 548 CE
    Reign of Empress Theodora of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1 Apr 527 CE
    Coronation of Justinian I and Theodora in the Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople.
  • 529 CE
    The first part of Justinian's Code, the Codex Justinianus, is released and immediately adopted across the Byzantine Empire.
  • 531 CE - 534 CE
    Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
  • 532 CE - 537 CE
    Hagia Sophia is built anew in Constantinople.
  • 533 CE - 534 CE
    The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
  • 533 CE
    Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
  • Dec 533 CE
    The Digestum and Institutiones parts of Justinian's Code are released which supersedes all previous laws across the Byzantine Empire.
  • 534 CE
    Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
  • 535 CE
    Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
  • 536 CE
    Rome falls to Belisarius.
  • 536 CE - 562 CE
    The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
  • c. 540 CE
    The Byzantine mosaics of the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy are created.
  • 545 CE - 550 CE
    Belisarius' second campaign against in Italy against the Ostrogoths under Totila.
  • c. 550 CE
    The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
  • 554 CE
    Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
  • Jul 556 CE - c. Jul 572 CE
    Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
  • 565 CE - 578 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin II.
  • 578 CE - 582 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.
  • c. 580 CE
    The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
  • 582 CE - 602 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Maurice.
  • 585 CE
    The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence.
  • 602 CE - 610 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Phocas.
  • 607 CE - 627 CE
    East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
  • 610 CE - 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius.
  • 626 CE
    A coalition of Persians, Slavs, Avars and Bulgars unsuccessfully lays siege to Constantinople.
  • 627 CE
    Byzantine emperor Heraclius wins a crushing victory over the Persian army at Nineveh.
  • 628 CE
    Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
  • 636 CE
    A Byzantine army is crushed by an Arab force at the battle of Yarmuk.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine III.
  • 641 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraklonas.
  • 641 CE - 668 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constans II.
  • 642 CE
    Byzantine Alexandria falls to the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 649 CE
    The Rashidun Caliphate attacks Byzantine Cyprus.
  • 654 CE
    Byzantine Crete, Kos and Rhodes fall to the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 655 CE
    A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by the Rashidun Caliphate off the coast of Lycia.
  • 659 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 668 CE - 685 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IV.
  • 674 CE - 678 CE
    The Arab Umayyad Caliphate unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
  • 678 CE
    First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
  • 679 CE
    The Umayyad Caliphate is obliged by treaty to give up former Byzantine territories in the Aegean.
  • 680 CE
    A Byzantine naval fleet is defeated by the Bulgars.
  • 680 CE - 681 CE
    The Sixth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople declares the end of Monotheletism and Monoenergism.
  • 681 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty with the Bulgars.
  • 685 CE - 695 CE
    First reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • c. 691 CE
    Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
  • 695 CE - 698 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leontios.
  • 695 CE
    The usurper Leontios exiles Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 698 CE - 705 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberios II.
  • 698 CE
    The Byzantine ruler Leontios is exiled by the usurper Apsimar (aka Tiberios III).
  • 705 CE - 711 CE
    Second reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 705 CE
    Justinian II besieges Constantinople and reinstates himself as Byzantine emperor, removing the usurper Tiberios III.
  • 709 CE
    Byzantine Tyana in Cappadocia is lost to the Arabs.
  • 711 CE - 713 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Philippikos.
  • 711 CE
    Pope Constantine visits Constantinople at the invitation of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 4 Nov 711 CE
    The general and usurper Philippikos murders Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
  • 713 CE - 716 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasius II
  • 716 CE - 717 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius III.
  • 717 CE - 718 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • 717 CE - 741 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo III.
  • 717 CE - 802 CE
    The Isaurian dynasty, founded by Leo III, rules the Byzantine Empire.
  • 720 CE - 721 CE
    The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire by Leo III.
  • 726 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III makes legal reforms, publishing his Ecloga.
  • 730 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III decrees that all religious icons be destroyed.
  • 740 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a decisive victory over the Arabs at the battle of Akroinon.
  • 741 CE - 775 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
  • 744 CE
    Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
  • 746 CE - 752 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
  • 754 CE
    The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
  • 755 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
  • 756 CE - 775 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
  • 775 CE - 780 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo IV.
  • 780 CE - 790 CE
    Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
  • 780 CE - 797 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VI (with Empress Irene as regent 780-790 CE).
  • Sep 787 CE
    The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
  • 790 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine VI exiles his mother and regent Empress Irene.
  • 795 CE
    Constantine VI divorces Mary of Amnia and then marries his mistress Theodote, causing the so-called Moechian Controversy, which divides the Byzantine Church.
  • 797 CE - 802 CE
    Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
  • 797 CE
    Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
  • 797 CE - 802 CE
    Empress Irene is the first Byzantine ruler to put an image of herself on both sides of her coinage.
  • 802 CE - 811 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
  • 807 CE
    A peace treaty is signed between king of the Franks Charlemagne and Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
  • 811 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Stavrakios.
  • 811 CE - 813 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael I.
  • 813 CE - 820 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian.
  • 814 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian defeats a Bulgar army near Mesembria.
  • 815 CE
    Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian proclaims the veneration of icons as heresy.
  • 820 CE - 829 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael II.
  • 820 CE - 823 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael II puts down a revolt led by Thomas the Slav.
  • 821 CE - 822 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
  • Dec 821 CE - Dec 823 CE
    Thomas the Slav unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
  • 829 CE - 842 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Theophilos.
  • 830 CE - 831 CE
    Byzantine emperor Theophilos wins victories in Cilica and awards himself a triumph.
  • 838 CE
    The Arab Caliphate defeats a Byzantine army and captures the cities of Ankara and Amorion.
  • 839 CE
    The Byzantine empire loses Taranto in southern Italy to the western Arabs.
  • 842 CE - 867 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
  • 842 CE - 855 CE
    Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 855 CE - 856 CE
    Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
  • 856 CE
    The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
  • 862 CE
    Council of Sirakawan between the Armenian and Byzantine Orthodox Churches discuss Christological issues in an effort to reunify, although ultimately unsuccessful.
  • 863 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
  • 864 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
  • 866 CE
    Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
  • 867 CE
    Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
  • 867 CE - 886 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
  • 883 CE
    A decree by Byzantine emperor Basil I is the first recorded evidence of a monastery on Mount Athos.
  • 886 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil I is (probably) murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
  • 886 CE - 912 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo VI.
  • 894 CE
    Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.
  • 1 Aug 902 CE
    Byzantine Taormina on Sicily falls to Arab attacks.
  • 904 CE
    Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.
  • 912 CE - 913 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexander.
  • 912 CE
    Byzantine emperor Constantine VII inherits the throne but is served by four consecutive regents.
  • 920 CE - 944 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos.
  • 920 CE
    Romanos I's Tome of Union reconciles the rift in the Byzantine Church caused by Leo VI's third and fourth marriages.
  • 922 CE
    Byzantine emperor Romanos I passes a law to protect the land of the peasantry.
  • 934 CE
    A Byzantine army captures Melitene in Cappadocia.
  • 941 CE
    Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
  • 943 CE
    A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas captures the border Mesopotamians fortresses of Nisibis, Dara, Amida, and Martyropolis.
  • 944 CE
    A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa. The Mandylion icon is taken to Constantinople
  • 945 CE - 959 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VII (ruled with a regent from 912 CE).
  • 959 CE - 963 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos II.
  • 962 CE
    Byzantine forces under Nikephoros Phokas sack Anazarbos and Hierapolis in Syria.
  • 963 CE - 969 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas.
  • 963 CE - 969 CE
    Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
  • 963 CE
    The Great Lavra monastery on Mount Athos is founded by Saint Athanasios.
  • 965 CE
    Byzantine forces are defeated and forced out of Sicily by Muslim troops.
  • 968 CE
    Nikephoros II Phokas marches Byzantine forces as far south as Lebanon.
  • 969 CE
    Byzantine forces recapture the city of Antioch from the Arabs.
  • 969 CE
    John Tzimiskes murders Nikephoros II Phokas in the imperial Byzantine palace in Constantinople.
  • 969 CE - 976 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes.
  • 970 CE
    The Treaty of Safar makes Aleppo a client state of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 971 CE
    John I Tzimiskes and the Byzantine army defeat the Rus at Dorystolon, forcing Sviatoslav and the Rus army to retreat from Bulgaria.
  • 972 CE
    John I Tzimiskes captures Nisibis and forces the Emir of Mosul to pay tribute to the Byzantine Empire.
  • 972 CE
    Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
  • 975 CE
    John I Tzimiskes invades Syria, conquering several cities and forcing neighboring Muslim states such as Damascus to pay tribute to the Byzantines.
  • 976 CE - 1025 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
  • 986 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
  • 987 CE - 989 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
  • 988 CE - 989 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II uses Greek Fire to attack a rebel force led by the usurper Bardas Phokas.
  • c. 988 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II uses a force of Varangians for the first time.
  • 994 CE
    Trdat the Architect completes his reconstruction of the dome of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.
  • 995 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
  • 997 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
  • 1014 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
  • 1018 CE - c. 1082 CE
    Life of Byzantine minister, scholar, and historian Michael Psellos.
  • 1021 CE - 1022 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
  • 1025 CE
    Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
  • 1025 CE - 1028 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
  • 1025 CE - 1028 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
  • 1028 CE - 1034 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos III Argyros.
  • 1028 CE - 1050 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Empress Zoe (including spells alongside three husbands, a nephew and sister).
  • 1034 CE - 1041 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael IV the Paphalgonian.
  • 1040 CE
    The Bulgarian leader Deljan starts a major Bulgarian uprising against the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1041 CE - 1042 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael V.
  • 1042 CE - 1055 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IX.
  • Apr 1042 CE - Jun 1042 CE
    Reign of Byzantine empresses Zoe and Theodora.
  • 1055 CE - 1056 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Empress Theodora (alone).
  • 1056 CE - 1057 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VI.
  • 1057 CE - 1059 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Isaac I Komnenos.
  • 1057 CE
    Isaac Komnenos and other leading military men in the Byzantine Empire rebel against Emperor Michael VI.
  • 8 Jun 1057 CE
    Isaac Komnenos is declared Byzantine emperor by imperial soldiers in Anatolia in rebellion against Emperor Michael VI.
  • 1059 CE - 1067 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine X.
  • 1059 CE
    Isaac I Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in battle, but loses soldiers in a storm during his march home.
  • 1067 CE - 1071 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogenes.
  • 1068 CE
    The Normans under Robert Guiscard begin the three-year siege of Bari, the Byzantine provincial capital of southern Italy.
  • 1071 CE - 1078 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VII.
  • 1078 CE - 1081 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros III.
  • 1081 CE - 1082 CE
    The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack Byzantine Greece.
  • Apr 1081 CE - Aug 1118 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
  • 1082 CE
    Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants trade access and privileges to the Venetians in return for naval support.
  • 1083 CE - 1153 CE
    Life of the Byzantine historian Anna Komnene.
  • 1084 CE
    The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1085 CE
    Alexios I Komnenos recaptures Dyracchion from the Normans.
  • 1087 CE - 1090 CE
    The Pechenegs attack Byzantine Thrace.
  • 29 Apr 1091 CE
    A Byzantine army, with Cumans as allies, defeats the Pechenegs at the battle of Mount Lebounion.
  • 1092 CE
    Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).
  • 1095 CE
    Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos quashes a rebellion led by Nikephoros Diogenes.
  • 1097 CE
    The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
  • 3 Jun 1098 CE
    The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
  • c. 1100 CE
    The Jesus Christ mosaic in the dome of the church at Daphni, Greece is made.
  • 1107 CE
    The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion.
  • 1108 CE
    The Treaty of Devol is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans, removing any Norman threat from the empire's territory.
  • 1118 CE - 1143 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos.
  • 1122 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in the Balkans.
  • c. 1125 CE
    The Vladimir Icon of the Virgin and Child is painted in Constantinople.
  • 1126 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos restores the trade privileges given to the Venetians.
  • 1129 CE
    Serbia is obliged to accept Byzantine sovereignty.
  • 1130 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Danishmendids in Asia Minor.
  • 1133 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos celebrates a triumph in Constantinople after five successful campaigns in Asia Minor.
  • c. 1137 CE
    Byzantine historian Anna Komnene begins her Alexiad.
  • 1137 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos conquers the Rubenids in Armenia and occupies the capital at Anazarbos.
  • 1138 CE
    Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos besieges and takes the city of Shaizar in Syria.
  • 1143 CE - 1180 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
  • 1144 CE - 1146 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos wins victories in Cilicia, Syria and Asia Minor.
  • Sep 1147 CE - Oct 1147 CE
    The armies of the Second Crusade arrive in Constantinople.
  • 1149 CE
    A fleet led by George of Antioch attacks Constantinople.
  • 1155 CE - 1157 CE
    The Byzantines unsuccessfully invade southern Italy.
  • 1158 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos signs a treaty with William I of Sicily.
  • 1171 CE
    Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos arrests 10,000 Venetian traders across the empire to limit their stranglehold on trade.
  • 17 Sep 1176 CE
    A Byzantine army is ambushed by the Seljuks at the battle of Myriokephalon in Phyrgia.
  • 1180 CE - 1183 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios II.
  • 1183 CE - 1185 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I.
  • 1185 CE - 1195 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Isaac II.
  • 1195 CE - 1203 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios III.
  • 1203 CE - 1204 CE
    Joint reign of Byzantine emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV.
  • 1204 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios IV.
  • 1204 CE
    Reign of Byzantine Alexios V.
  • 1204 CE - 1261 CE
    Latin emperors rule the Byzantine Empire.
  • 12 Apr 1204 CE
    Constantinople is sacked by the Fourth Crusaders.
  • 1259 CE - 1282 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VIII.
  • 1259 CE
    Michael VIII Palaiologos makes himself co-emperor in Nicaea with John IV Laskaris.
  • c. 1260 CE
    The wall paintings of the church of Sancta Sophia in Trebizond are made.
  • 1261 CE
    Michael VIII Palaiologos enters Constantinople and re-establishes it as the Byzantine capital.
  • 1271 CE
    Golden Horde forces under Nogai invade the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1282 CE - 1328 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I.
  • 1282 CE
    John II Megas Komenos of the Empire of Trebizond formally renounces his claim to the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1293 CE - 1320 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael IX.
  • 1304 CE - 1309 CE
    Spanish mercenaries of the Catalan Grand Company attack the monasteries on Mount Athos.
  • 1306 CE
    The Knights Hospitaller, looking for a new base, attack Byzantine Rhodes.
  • 1328 CE - 1341 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos III.
  • 1341 CE - 1376 CE
    First reign of Byzantine emperor John V.
  • 1341 CE - 1354 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor John VI.
  • 1370 CE - 1375 CE
    The Byzantine manuscript the Theological Works of John VI Cantacuzenos is produced and contains many miniature paintings.
  • 1376 CE - 1379 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos IV.
  • 1379 CE - 1391 CE
    Second reign of Byzantine emperor John V.
  • 1390 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor John VII.
  • 1391 CE - 1425 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel II.
  • 1397 CE
    The Knights Hospitaller buy Corinth from the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1404 CE
    Last historical mention of the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
  • 1425 CE - 1448 CE
    Reign of Byzantine emperor John VIII.
  • 1430 CE
    The Ottoman Empire grants Mount Athos and its monasteries independence in exchange for annual tribute.
  • 1449 CE - 1453 CE
    Reign of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI.
  • 29 May 1453 CE
    Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II sacks Constantinople.
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