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Trade in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Trade in Ancient Mesopotamia

Local trade in ancient Mesopotamia began in the Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE), had developed into long-distance trade by the Uruk Period (c. 4100-2900 BCE), and was flourishing by the time of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE). Developments...
Trade in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Trade in Ancient Egypt

Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need...
Trade in Medieval Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in Medieval Europe

Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day's travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods...
Middle Eastern Power Shifts & the Trade of Pepper from East to West
Article by James Hancock

Middle Eastern Power Shifts & the Trade of Pepper from East to West

Pepper has long been the king of spices and for almost 2,000 years dominated world trade. Originating in India, it was known in Greece by the 4th century BCE and was an integral part of the Roman diet by 30 BCE. It remained a force in Europe...
Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe

Trade in raw materials and manufactured goods in ancient Celtic Europe was vibrant and far-reaching, particularly regarding the centre of the continent where there was a hub of well-established trade routes. As the Celts' territory expanded...
Trade Goods of the East India Company
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade Goods of the East India Company

The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600, and it came to control both trade and territories in India, as well as a trade monopoly with China. Goods the EIC traded included spices, cotton cloth, tea, and opium, all in such...
Trade in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
Global Trade in the 13th Century
Article by James Hancock

Global Trade in the 13th Century

In the 13th century, astonishing quantities of spices and silk passed from the Far East to Europe. Exact amounts are not known, but spice popularity in both cuisine and medicine reached its historical peak during the Middle Ages in Europe...
Indian Ocean Trade before the European Conquest
Article by James Hancock

Indian Ocean Trade before the European Conquest

Finding a maritime route to the East and gaining access to the lucrative spice trade stood at the root of the European Age of Exploration. However, when Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached the Indian Ocean in 1493, he...
Trade in Ancient Greece
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in Ancient Greece

Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean...
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