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Alexander the Great
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great (l. 21 July 356 BCE – 10 or 11 June 323 BCE, r. 336-323 BCE), was the son of King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE) who became king upon his father's death in 336 BCE and then...
Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership
Article by Christopher Berg

Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership

History is not predictable; in many ways it can take on a life of its own. But sometimes, an individual's sheer presence is enough to bend history to his will. One such individual was Alexander the Great. Through his conviction, vision, mental...
Alexander III of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander III of Scotland

Alexander III of Scotland reigned from 1249 to 1286 CE. Succeeding his father Alexander II of Scotland (r. 1214-1249 CE) at the age of eight, the young king's early reign was blighted by rivalries between his nobles, a situation made more...
Alexander II of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander II of Scotland

Alexander II of Scotland reigned from 1214 to 1249 CE. Succeeding his father William I of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE), Alexander supported the northern barons in England against the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) and so contributed...
Alexander the Great as a God
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Alexander the Great as a God

The age-old concept of the “divine right of kings” allowed that a country's ruler received his or her power or authority from God. However, few, if any, were delusional enough to actually believe themselves to be a god. An exception to this...
Alexander I the Philhellene
Definition by Massimo Manzo

Alexander I the Philhellene

Alexander I of Macedon, also known as Alexander I the Philhellene ('friend of the Greeks') or 'The Wealthy', was king of ancient Macedon from around 498 to 454 BCE. He is known for the role he played in the second Persian invasion of Greece...
Alexander I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander I of Scotland

Alexander I of Scotland reigned from 1107 to 1124 CE. Alexander continued the reorganisation of the Scottish Church, taking the Roman Catholic Church organisation as a model, and he famously founded the priory at Scone, site of the acclamation...
Alexander Helios
Definition by Arienne King

Alexander Helios

Alexander Helios (40 BCE – c. late 1st century BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, the second oldest son of Cleopatra VII (69 BCE – 30 BCE) and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene II (40 BCE – 5 BCE). He spent the majority of his...
Alexander Severus
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Alexander Severus

Alexander Severus served as the Roman emperor from 222 CE until his untimely death in 235 CE. At the urging of his mother, aunt, and grandmother, Emperor Elagabalus named his cousin Alexianus (the future Alexander Severus) as his heir in...
Death of Alexander the Great
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Death of Alexander the Great

In June of 323 BCE, Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BCE) died in Babylon. His sudden death before his 33rd birthday has long been a point of speculation: was it disease, old wounds, or murder? Regardless of the cause, history ranks him as...
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