Egypt Timeline

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  • c. 6000 BCE
    Nile River Valley first inhabited.
  • c. 6000 BCE
    Burial of the dead in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE
    Earliest Egyptian mastabas dug at Saqqara.
  • 5500 BCE
    Oldest faience workshop in Egypt founded at Abydos.
  • 5000 BCE
    Organised farming begins in Egypt.
  • c. 4000 BCE
    Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.
  • c. 3414 BCE - c. 3100 BCE
    Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
  • c. 3200 BCE
    Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.
  • c. 3200 BCE - c. 3000 BCE
    Probable dates for creation of Narmer Palette.
  • 3150 BCE - 2613 BCE
    Early Dynastic Period in Egypt. First Kings.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 3100 BCE
    Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE
    King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.
  • 3100 BCE - 2181 BCE
    Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
  • c. 3000 BCE
    Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
  • c. 2670 BCE
    Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.
  • c. 2670 BCE - c. 2650 BCE
    The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.
  • c. 2667 BCE - c. 2600 BCE
    Attributed dates of Imhotep's medical and architectural achievements.
  • 2667 BCE - 2648 BCE
    Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    The Period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2560 BCE
    The Great Pyramid of Giza is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
  • c. 2500 BCE
    The Great Sphinx of Giza is built.
  • c. 2181 BCE - c. 2040 BCE
    First Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • 2064 BCE - 1986 BCE
    Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.
  • 1800 BCE
    Bronze working introduced to Egypt.
  • c. 1800 BCE
    The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
  • 1783 BCE
    Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
  • c. 1782 BCE - c. 1570 BCE
    Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • 1700 BCE
    The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.
  • 1650 BCE - 1550 BCE
    Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
  • c. 1600 BCE
    The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep's earlier work.
  • c. 1570 BCE - c. 1069 BCE
    The New Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 1570 BCE
    Ahmose I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
  • c. 1550 BCE - 1070 BCE
    Composition of the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
  • 1504 BCE - 1492 BCE
    Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Thutmose I.
  • 1500 BCE
    Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
  • 1479 BCE - 1458 BCE
    Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.
  • c. 1458 BCE
    Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
  • 1458 BCE - 1425 BCE
    Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.
  • c. 1457 BCE
    Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
  • c. 1386 BCE - c. 1353 BCE
    Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.
  • 1353 BCE - c. 1336 BCE
    Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, 'Heretic King' of Egypt.
  • c. 1336 BCE - c. 1327 BCE
    Reign of Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as queen.
  • c. 1334 BCE
    Tutankhamun initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.
  • 1327 BCE - 1323 BCE
    Reign of Ay in Egypt.
  • c. 1320 BCE
    Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt
  • c. 1320 BCE - 1292 BCE
    Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun's name erased from record.
  • c. 1303 BCE
    Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.
  • 1295 BCE - 1294 BCE
    The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.
  • 1295 BCE - 1188 BCE
    The 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
  • 1294 BCE - 1279 BCE
    The reign of Seti I in Egypt.
  • 1279 BCE - 1212 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
  • 1274 BCE
    Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
  • c. 1264 BCE - c. 1244 BCE
    Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1258 BCE
    The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
  • c. 1244 BCE - c. 1224 BCE
    Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1184 BCE - 1153 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 1180 BCE
    The Sea Peoples begin increased incursions into Egypt.
  • 1180 BCE - 1178 BCE
    Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
  • 1178 BCE
    Ramesses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
  • c. 1069 BCE - 525 BCE
    Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • 750 BCE
    Iron working is introduced to Egypt.
  • 712 BCE - 671 BCE
    Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.
  • 671 BCE
    Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
  • 671 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
  • 667 BCE - 665 BCE
    Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
  • 664 BCE
    Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.
  • 653 BCE
    Egypt expels Assyrians.
  • 601 BCE
    Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.
  • c. 525 BCE
    Imhotep is deified in Egypt.
  • 525 BCE - 404 BCE
    Persia conquers Egypt.
  • 525 BCE
    Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
  • 520 BCE
    Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
  • c. 398 BCE - c. 380 BCE
    Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
  • 341 BCE
    The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
  • 332 BCE
    Alexander the Great conquers Phoenicia and turns toward Egypt.
  • 331 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
  • Jan 331 BCE
    Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
  • 323 BCE
    Death of Alexander the Great.
  • 323 BCE - 282 BCE
    Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
  • 323 BCE - 31 BCE
    The Hellenistic Age. Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
  • 305 BCE - 285 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, who initiated the Great Library.
  • 300 BCE
    Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
  • 282 BCE - 246 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, development of Library at Alexandria.
  • 277 BCE - 276 BCE
    4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
  • 259 BCE
    Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
  • 247 BCE
    The Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
  • 217 BCE
    14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochus III.
  • c. 69 BCE - 12 Aug 30 BCE
    Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 47 BCE
    Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
  • 30 BCE
    Egypt becomes province of the Roman Empire.
  • 30 BCE
    Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt.
  • 30 BCE - 14 CE
    Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
  • c. 1 CE
    First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.
  • 30 CE - 476 CE
    Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
  • c. 50 CE - c. 60 CE
    Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
  • 232 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 646 CE
    The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
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