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Julius Caesar
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the...
The Assassination of Julius Caesar
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Assassination of Julius Caesar

Veni, vidi, vici! This was the simple message the Roman commander Julius Caesar sent to the Senate in Rome after a resounding victory in the east against King Pharnaces of Pontus - a message that demonstrated both arrogance as well as great...
Caesarion
Definition by Arienne King

Caesarion

Ptolemy XV Caesar “Theos Philopator Philometor” (“the Father-loving Mother-loving God”) (c. 47-30 BCE), better known by his unofficial nickname Caesarion or “Little Caesar” in Greek, was the oldest son of Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) and was...
Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome

Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) first assumed the role of dictator in 49 BCE, however, once he had secured his election as consul for the following year, he resigned after 11 days. After defeating Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48...
Marcus Junius Brutus
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Marcus Junius Brutus

Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 BCE) was a Roman politician and a leading figure in the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. Although he was granted amnesty after the Ides of March, a new civil war soon broke out. Brutus committed suicide...
Cato the Younger
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Cato the Younger

Marcus Porcius Cato (95-46 BCE), better known as Cato the Younger or Cato of Utica, was an influential politician of the Roman Republic. As the great-grandson of Cato the Elder and a dedicated student of Stoicism, he believed in traditional...
The Battle of Pharsalus
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Battle of Pharsalus

Pharsalus, in eastern Greece, was the site of a decisive battle in 48 BCE between two of Rome's greatest ever generals: Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar. After several previous encounters, Pharsalus, the biggest ever battle between Romans...
Battle of Alesia
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Alesia

The Battle of Alesia was a decisive Roman victory in Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars in September 52 BCE. Roman commander Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) and his legions faced a united Gallic army under the command of Vercingetorix (82-46 BCE), chief...
Commius
Definition by Ludwig Heinrich Dyck

Commius

Commius was an Atrebates noble during Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars (58-50 BCE) who turned from Roman ally to indomitable foe. As king of the Atrebates, Commius ably served Caesar in Britannia and Gaul before becoming one of the main leaders...
Cleopatra
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cleopatra

Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE, r. 51-30 BCE) was the last ruler of Egypt before it was annexed as a province of Rome. Although arguably the most famous Egyptian queen, Cleopatra was actually Greek and a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30...
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