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Death in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Death in Ancient Egypt

To the ancient Egyptians, death was not the end of life but only the beginning of the next phase in an individual's eternal journey. There was no word in ancient Egyptian which corresponds to the concept of "death" as usually defined, as...
Black Death
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Black Death

The Black Death was a plague pandemic that devastated medieval Europe from 1347 to 1352. The Black Death killed an estimated 25-30 million people. The disease originated in central Asia and was taken to the Crimea by Mongol warriors and traders...
Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia

A vision of the afterlife is articulated by every culture, ancient or modern, in an effort to answer the question of what happens after death. Ancient Persia had the same interest in this as any culture of the past or in the present day and...
Death of Alexander the Great
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Death of Alexander the Great

In June of 323 BCE, Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BCE) died in Babylon. His sudden death before his 33rd birthday has long been a point of speculation: was it disease, old wounds, or murder? Regardless of the cause, history ranks him as...
Robespierre & the Death Penalty
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Robespierre & the Death Penalty

"I come to ask, not the gods, but legislators…to erase from the code of the French the blood laws that command judicial murders" (Robespierre, 6). These impassioned words, spoken by Maximilien Robespierre before France's National Constituent...
Death of Admiral Coligny
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Death of Admiral Coligny

The assassination attempt on Gaspard II de Coligny, Admiral of France (l. 1519-1572) on 22 August 1572 was the spark igniting the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre beginning on 24 August and continuing in Paris for the next five days and elsewhere...
Effects of the Black Death on Europe
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Effects of the Black Death on Europe

The outbreak of plague in Europe between 1347-1352 – known as the Black Death – completely changed the world of medieval Europe. Severe depopulation upset the socio-economic feudal system of the time but the experience of the plague itself...
Death, Burial & the Afterlife in the Ancient Celtic Religion
Article by Mark Cartwright

Death, Burial & the Afterlife in the Ancient Celtic Religion

The ancient Celts who occupied large parts of Europe from 700 BCE to 400 CE displayed a clear belief in an afterlife as evidenced in their treatment of the dead. In the absence of extensive written records by the Celts themselves, we are...
Death's Mansions: The Columbaria of Imperial Rome
Article by Francesca Santoro L'hoir

Death's Mansions: The Columbaria of Imperial Rome

A columbarium is an underground chamber, which the Romans used for preserving the ashes of the dead. During the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, hundreds of columbaria lined the consular highways leading out of Rome, although now only some two dozen...
Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World

Belief in an afterlife was common in the ancient world, as it is today, and each culture created its own unique vision of the land that existed beyond the grave. Even with their differences, there are many similarities, including a concept...
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