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Women in the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in the Middle Ages

The lives of women in the Middle Ages were determined by the Church and the aristocracy. The medieval Church provided people with the 'big picture' of the meaning of life and one's place in it; the aristocracy ensured that everyone stayed...
Spartan Women
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Spartan Women

Spartan women had more rights and enjoyed greater autonomy than women in any other Greek city-state of the Classical Period (5th-4th centuries BCE). Women could inherit property, own land, make business transactions, and were better educated...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
Women in the New Testament
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Women in the New Testament

Women in the New Testament are presented for the most part along the contours of both Jewish and Greco-Roman concepts of the social construction of gender roles. Women’s value to society was in their role in procreation. There are some exceptions...
Women in the Viking Age
Articleby Emma Groeneveld

Women in the Viking Age

Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories...
The Role of Women in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Role of Women in the Roman World

The exact role and status of women in the Roman world, and indeed in most ancient societies, has often been obscured by the biases of both ancient male writers and 19-20th century CE male scholars, a situation only relatively recently redressed...
Women in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Egypt

One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma'at - the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one's life. This ideal was the most important duty observed by the pharaoh who, as mediator...
The Women of Athena's Cult
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Women of Athena's Cult

In ancient Athens, women had no life outside the home unless they were prostitutes or were engaged in religious activities such as festivals. Every Greek deity in every city-state had their own cult (sect) but the cult of Athena offered women...
Women in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to work for a living did so in most of the industries of the period...
Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity

Women feature prominently in the gospels and Book of Acts of the Christian New Testament as supporters of Jesus' ministry. The most famous of these is Mary Magdalene, most likely an upper-class woman of means instead of the prostitute label...
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