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Women in the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in the Middle Ages

The lives of women in the Middle Ages were determined by the Church and the aristocracy. The medieval Church provided people with the 'big picture' of the meaning of life and one's place in it; the aristocracy ensured that everyone stayed...
Women in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Mesopotamia

The lives of women in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be characterized as easily as with other civilizations owing to the different cultures over time. Generally speaking, though, Mesopotamian women had almost equal rights, could own businesses...
Spartan Women
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Spartan Women

Spartan women had more rights and enjoyed greater autonomy than women in any other Greek city-state of the Classical Period (5th-4th centuries BCE). Women could inherit property, own land, make business transactions, and were better educated...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
Women in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Egypt

One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma'at - the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one's life. This ideal was the most important duty observed by the pharaoh who, as mediator...
Women in the New Testament
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Women in the New Testament

Women in the New Testament are presented for the most part along the contours of both Jewish and Greco-Roman concepts of the social construction of gender roles. Women’s value to society was in their role in procreation. There are some exceptions...
Women in the Viking Age
Articleby Emma Groeneveld

Women in the Viking Age

Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories...
Women in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to work for a living did so in most of the industries of the period...
The Role of Women in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Role of Women in the Roman World

The exact role and status of women in the Roman world, and indeed in most ancient societies, has often been obscured by the biases of both ancient male writers and 19-20th century CE male scholars, a situation only relatively recently redressed...
Women in Ancient Greece
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Women in Ancient Greece

Women in the ancient Greek world had few rights in comparison to male citizens. Unable to vote, own land, or inherit, a woman's place was in the home and her purpose in life was the rearing of children. That is a general description and when...
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