Roman Empire Timeline

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  • 753 BCE
    The legendary founding date of Rome.
  • 212 BCE
    The Romans conquer Saguntum from the Carthaginians.
  • 206 BCE - 205 BCE
    The Romans conquer Gades. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • 191 BCE
    Delphi comes under Roman control.
  • c. 191 BCE
    The Achaean League signs a treaty of alliance with Rome.
  • 188 BCE
    Rome gives Samos its independence.
  • 166 BCE
    Rome gives dominion over the Cyclades to Athens.
  • c. 150 BCE
    Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
  • 150 BCE
    The Lusitani are betrayed and slaughtered by the Romans.
  • 148 BCE
    Corcyra is made part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
  • 146 BCE
    End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
  • 146 BCE
    Utica is made the capital of the Roman province of Africa.
  • 146 BCE
    Thessalonica is made the captial of the Roman province of Macedon.
  • 133 BCE
    Lydia and its captial Sardis comes under Roman rule.
  • 129 BCE
    Samos becomes part of the Roman province of Asia.
  • 96 BCE
    Cyrenaica becomes a Roman province.
  • 74 BCE
    The city of Cyrene comes under Roman control.
  • 64 BCE
    Tyre becomes a Roman colony.
  • 64 BCE
    Byblos conquered by the Roman general Pompey the Great.
  • 63 BCE
    Jerash in Jordan becomes part of the Roman province of Syria.
  • 48 BCE
    Butrint formally becomes a Roman colony.
  • 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar founds the Roman colony of Corinth.
  • 41 BCE
    Rome takes control over Naxos in the Cyclades.
  • 37 BCE - 4 BCE
    Reign of Herod the Great over Judea.
  • 31 BCE
    Octavian uses Corcyra as a Roman naval base.
  • 30 BCE
    Egypt becomes province of the Roman Empire.
  • 27 BCE - 19 BCE
    Cantabrian Wars: Roman conquest of the Iberian Penninsula.
  • c. 27 BCE
    Augustus makes Gortyn the capital of the Roman province of Crete & Cyrene.
  • 27 BCE
    Philippi gains the honorary title of Colonia Iulia Augusta Philippensis.
  • 25 BCE
    Galatia is peacefully absorbed into the Roman Empire.
  • 14 BCE - 96 CE
    Rome launches an extensive cultural patronage and construction programme in Iberia.
  • 1 CE - 100 CE
    Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
  • 6 CE
    Publius Quinctilius Varus is made governor of Germania.
  • 9 CE
    The Rhine River is established as the boundary between the Latin and German speaking worlds, following the defeat of the Roman army, under the command of Varus, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
  • 30 CE - 476 CE
    Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
  • 43 CE
    Romans invade Britain under Aulus Plautius.
  • 43 CE - 47 CE
    Romans conquer South Britain and claim the territory as part of Roman Empire.
  • 43 CE
    Claudius commences the Roman conquest of Britain.
  • 44 CE
    Caesarea made capital of imperial province.
  • 47 CE - 50 CE
    Londinium (London) founded, roads constructed.
  • 51 CE
    Briton rebel leader Caratacus defeated, rebellion crushed.
  • 54 CE - 60 CE
    Roman general Corbulo successfully campaigns in Armenia.
  • 68 CE - 69 CE
    Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.
  • 75 CE - 77 CE
    Romans defeat the last of the Northern tribes; Roman conquest of Britain complete.
  • 76 CE - 138 CE
    Life of Emperor Hadrian.
  • 85 CE - 86 CE
    Dacians invade Moesia and defeat the Romans.
  • 86 CE
    The Roman general Cornelius Fuscus invades Dacia. He is ambushed and his army is annihilated.
  • 88 CE
    Resolved to avenge Fuscus' defeat, Domitian sends another army to Dacia under Tettius Iulianus. This general is victorious on the mountainous pass of Tapae, in the south-west of modern Romania.
  • 101 CE - 106 CE
    Trajan conquers Dacia.
  • 106 CE
    Jerash in Jordan becomes part of the Roman province of Arabia.
  • 115 CE - 117 CE
    Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
  • 116 CE
    Invasion and annexation of the Fertile Crescent region by Rome under Trajan.
  • 11 Aug 117 CE - 10 Jul 138 CE
  • 121 CE - 125 CE
    First trip of Hadrian around the Empire: Gaul, Germania, Noricum, Britain, Cappadocia, Galatia, Bithynia, Asia, Greece, Moesia, Dacia, and Pannonia.
  • 26 Apr 121 CE - 17 Mar 180 CE
    Life of Marcus Aurelius.
  • 142 CE
    The Antonine Wall built under Antoninus Pius, north of Hadrian's Wall.
  • 165 CE - 167 CE
    Plague epidemic in the Roman empire.
  • 167 CE
    Marcomanni sack Aquileia.
  • 167 CE - 180 CE
    Marcomannic Wars.
  • 168 CE
    Germanic tribes cross the Danube into the Roman Empire.
  • 192 CE
    Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
  • 195 CE
    First Parthian war.
  • 197 CE - 198 CE
    Second Parthian war.
  • 198 CE - 209 CE
    Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus.
  • 200 CE
    Completion of the Roman road system.
  • c. 204 CE - 270 CE
    Life of Plotinus.
  • 209 CE - Dec 211 CE
    Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Geta (Feb - Dec 211 only with Geta).
  • 212 CE
    Roman citizenship granted to all inhabitants of the empire.
  • 212 CE
    Rome withdraws from region of Scotland.
  • 212 CE
    Caracalla's edict grants Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire.
  • 232 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
  • 234 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
  • 238 CE
    Year of the Six Emperors in the Roman Empire.
  • 242 CE
    Osroene, with its capital at Edessa, is made into a Roman province.
  • 250 CE
    Thessalonica is made a Roman colony.
  • 260 CE
    Shapur I captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.
  • 261 CE
    Thugga is made a Roman colonia.
  • 262 CE - 266 CE
    Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
  • Sep 270 CE - c. Sep 275 CE
  • 271 CE
    Aurelian defends the Roman Empire against Juthungi, Alamanni, and Marcomanni incursions.
  • 272 CE - 273 CE
    Aurelian successfully campaigns against Palmyra.
  • 285 CE
    The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
  • 312 CE
    Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
  • 337 CE
    Ascension of Constantius II.
  • 337 CE
    Death of Emperor Constantine I.
  • 361 CE
    Death of Constantius II.
  • 367 CE
    Picts, Scots, Saxons, and Franks attack the Roman Empire.
  • 376 CE
    The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 391 CE
    Emperor Theodosius I closes pagan temples.
  • 410 CE
    Rome withdraws forces from Britain.
  • 410 CE
    The Romans withdraw from Britain.
  • 426 CE
    Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders closure of Epidaurus sanctuary.
  • 439 CE
    Vandals take Carthage from the Western Roman Empire and make it their new capital.
  • 523 CE
    Emperor Justinian seizes Caesarea.
  • 565 CE
    Death of Justinian I after 38 years ruling the Roman Empire.