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Scottish Medieval Monarchs
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Scottish Medieval Monarchs

In this collection, we present the 15 most important of the 21 monarchs to rule Scotland from the 11th to 16th century. For the first time forging a unified kingdom, the monarchs of this period were often warrior-kings who conquered the remoter...
Stone of Scone
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Stone of Scone

The Stone of Scone (Gaelic: Lia Fail), also known as the Stone of Destiny or Coronation Stone, is a block of sandstone associated with the coronation ceremonies of the medieval monarchs of Scotland. These ceremonies were held at Scone, a...
Malcolm III of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Malcolm III of Scotland

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was...
David I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

David I of Scotland

David I of Scotland reigned from 1124 to 1153 CE. Taking over from his elder brother Alexander I of Scotland (r. 1107-1124 CE), David continued to consolidate the kingdom of Scotland as a single nation, built castles and monasteries, and...
Saint Margaret of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Saint Margaret of Scotland

Saint Margaret of Scotland (c. 1046-1093 CE) was, as the second wife of Malcolm III (r. 1058-1093 CE), the queen of Scotland from 1070 CE until her death in November 1093 CE. A princess of the royal house of Wessex, she brought Anglo-Saxon...
Robert II of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Robert II of Scotland

Robert II of Scotland ruled as king from 1371 to 1390 CE. Born Robert Stewart, he succeeded the heirless David II of Scotland (r. 1329-1371 CE) and so founded the royal house of Stewart. Dividing Scottish estates between his many offspring...
James IV of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James IV of Scotland

James IV of Scotland ruled as king from 1488 to 1513 CE. He succeeded his father James III of Scotland (r. 1460-1488 CE) and became one of the most popular of the Stuart kings. James sought to apply justice in every corner of his realm, he...
William I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Edinburgh Castle
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edinburgh Castle

Edinburgh Castle, towering atop Castle Rock, has served Scotland for centuries, at one time or another acting as a fortress, royal residence, seat of government, armoury, and prison. The scene of countless sieges, royal births and deaths...
Alexander II of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Alexander II of Scotland

Alexander II of Scotland reigned from 1214 to 1249 CE. Succeeding his father William I of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE), Alexander supported the northern barons in England against the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) and so contributed...