Ruins of the Temple of Enlil at Nippur.
In ancient Mesopotamia, the meaning of life was for one to live in concert with the gods. Humans were created as co-laborers with their gods to hold off the forces of chaos and to keep the community running smoothly. Mesopotamian Creation...
The Sumerian Flood Story (also known as the Eridu Genesis, Sumerian Creation Myth, Sumerian Deluge Myth) is the oldest Mesopotamian text relating the tale of the Great Flood which would appear in later works such as the Atrahasis (17th century...
Babylonian Clay Map from Nippur
A Babylonian cuneiform tablet with a map of the fields, towns and palaces around Nippur. Kassite Period, 1550-1450 BCE. Nippur, Iraq.
Law Code Tablet of King Hammurabi from Nippur
This terracotta tablet is a smaller version of the original Code of Hammurabi to be used in schools and courts. The tablet was found at Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia. Old Babylonian era, 1790...
Terracotta Tablet from Nippur
This clay tablet (with its clay envelope) was a legal document which documented the purchase of a house property. From Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia. Old-Babylonian era, 1757 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological...
Love Poem Tablet from Nippur
A terracotta tablet with cuneiform inscriptions that narrates a love poem. This is the oldest love poem ever known. The poem was probably written by an unknown woman who was chosen as a bride for Shu-Sin, King of Ur, III dynasty. The poem...
Glazed Sarcophagi from Nippur
The smaller sarcophagus on the left belonged to a child. Baked clay and glazed. Parthian, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. From Nippur, Southern Mesopotamia, in modern-day Iraq. (Museum of Archaeology, Istanbul, Turkey).
Enlil (also known as Ellil and Nunamnir) was the Sumerian god of the air in the Mesopotamian Pantheon but was more powerful than any other elemental deities and eventually was worshiped as King of the Gods. He was the son of the god of the...
The Mesopotamian Pantheon
The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be...