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Mesopotamia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers') was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to modern-day...
Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia

Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon of Akkad (the Great...
Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name (meaning “the land between two rivers”, the Tigris and Euphrates) for the region corresponding to modern-day Iraq and parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. It is considered the “cradle of civilization” for...
Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities

Once upon a time, in the land known as Sumer, the people built a temple to their god who had conquered the forces of chaos and brought order to the world. They built this temple at a place called Eridu, which was “one of the most southerly...
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

The Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia is the modern-day archaeological term for the era in Mesopotamian history – 2900-2334 BCE – during which some of the most significant cultural advances were made including the rise of the cities, the...
Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance

Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from ancient Mesopotamia are cylinder seals. These fairly small items may be seen today in museum exhibits around the world but, perhaps owing to their size, they are not given...
Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent & Mesopotamia
Article by Jan van der Crabben

Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent & Mesopotamia

The ancient Near East, and the historical region of the Fertile Crescent in particular, is generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. The first agricultural evidence comes from the Levant, from where it spread to Mesopotamia, enabling...
Mesopotamia: Government & Religion
Lesson Pack by Marion Wadowski

Mesopotamia: Government & Religion

This lesson pack on government and religion in ancient Mesopotamia includes the following content: Three Lesson Plans Rise of City States Temples & Divine Kingship Code of Hammurabi Additional Materials...
Trade in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Trade in Ancient Mesopotamia

Local trade in ancient Mesopotamia began in the Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE), had developed into long-distance trade by the Uruk Period (c. 4100-2900 BCE), and was flourishing by the time of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE). Developments...
Scribes in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Scribes in Ancient Mesopotamia

Scribes in ancient Mesopotamia were highly educated individuals trained in writing and reading on diverse subjects. Initially, their purpose was in recording financial transactions through trade, but in time, they were integral to every aspect...
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