Mesopotamia: Agriculture & Innovations

Server Costs Fundraiser 2024

Help our mission to provide free history education to the world! Please donate and contribute to covering our server costs in 2024. With your support, millions of people learn about history entirely for free every month.
$3411 / $18000


Jan van der Crabben
published on 12 June 2023

Ancient Mesopotamia, located in the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, witnessed the emergence of cities and empires primarily due to the vital role of agriculture. The rich alluvial soil and access to water sources allowed the Mesopotamians to develop sophisticated agriculture and by irrigation systems, which produced the food surplus required for the growth of cities.

This surplus not only sustained larger populations but also supported the development of specialized labor, leading to the emergence of artisans, craftspeople, and merchants. This laid the groundwork for social stratification, the concentration of wealth, and the formation of powerful city-states and empires and, above all, civilization.

Mesopotamian civilization gave birth to numerous inventions and innovations that continue to shape our lives today, including:

  • writing
  • the wheel
  • recorded legal codes
  • mass-produced ceramics and bricks
  • mathematics
  • timekeeping

There were numerous other Mesopotamian inventions which affected the course of history and many of which still shape civilization as we know it today.



Subscribe to this author

About the Author

Jan van der Crabben
Jan is the Founder and CEO of World History Encyclopedia. He holds an MA War Studies from King's College, and he has worked in the field of history-related digital media since 2006.

Free for the World, Supported by You

World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide.

Become a Member