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Sumer
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sumer

Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered the cradle of civilization. The name comes from Akkadian, the language of the north of Mesopotamia, and means “land of the...
Sumerians
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sumerians

The Sumerians were the people of southern Mesopotamia whose civilization flourished between c. 4100-1750 BCE. Their name comes from the region which is frequently – and incorrectly – referred to as a “country”. Sumer was never a cohesive...
Ur-Nammu
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu (r. 2047-2030 BCE) was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur in Sumer who initiated the so-called Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) also known as the Sumerian Renaissance. He is best known as the king who composed the oldest extant...
Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future

Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one's hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept...
Gutians
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Gutians

The Gutians were a West Asiatic people who are thought to have lived around the Zagros Mountains in a region referred to as Gutium. They had no written language and all that is known of them comes from their enemies, including the Akkadians...
Map of Sumer
Image by P L Kessler

Map of Sumer

The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered...
Bull Inlay from Sumer
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Bull Inlay from Sumer

An alabaster inlay of a bull. Early dynastic period, 2750-2300 BCE. From Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Burrell Collection, Glasgow, Scotland).
Mesopotamia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers') was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to modern-day...
Map of Sumer and Elam
Image by Phirosiberia

Map of Sumer and Elam

Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam.
A Short History of Sumer and the Sumerian Civilization from Mesopotamia
Video by Ancient History Encyclopedia

A Short History of Sumer and the Sumerian Civilization from Mesopotamia

The Sumerians flourished in Mesopotamia between c. 4100 – 1750 BCE in the region of Sumer which was not a country, but a region made up of a number of walled city-states, each with its own king. The Sumerian civilization developed the first...
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