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Enlil
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Enlil

Enlil (also known as Ellil and Nunamnir) was the Sumerian god of the air in the Mesopotamian Pantheon but was more powerful than any other elemental deities and eventually was worshiped as King of the Gods. He is featured in a number of important...
Enlil
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

Enlil

Baked clay statue of the Mesopotamian god Enlil, from the Scribal Quarter at Nippur, Iraq, 1800-1600 BCE. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Enlil in the E-kur
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enlil in the E-kur

Enlil in the E-Kur (c. 2000 BCE) is a Sumerian hymn praising the sky god Enlil, his temple/ziggurat at Nippur, and his consort Ninlil, depicting all three in glowing terms and Enlil as a creator-god. The piece is highly regarded as an important...
The Curse of Agade: Naram-Sin's Battle with the Gods
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Curse of Agade: Naram-Sin's Battle with the Gods

The Curse of Agade is a story dated to the Ur III Period of Mesopotamia (2047-1750 BCE) though thought to be somewhat older in origin. It tells the story of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin (r. 2261-2224 BCE) and his confrontation with the gods...
The Song of the Hoe
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Song of the Hoe

The Song of the Hoe is a Sumerian praise poem celebrating the hoe for its many uses and linking it to the creation of the world by the great god Enlil. As the economy of Mesopotamia was almost entirely based on agriculture, it is not surprising...
The Mesopotamian Pantheon
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Mesopotamian Pantheon

The gods of the Mesopotamian region were not uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same...
Nanna
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Nanna

Nanna (also known as Nannar, Nanna-Suen, Sin, Asimbabbar, Namrasit, Inbu) is the Mesopotamian god of the moon and wisdom. He is one of the oldest gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon and is first mentioned at the very dawn of writing in Sumer...
Enki
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Enki

Enki (also known as Ea, Enkig, Nudimmud, Ninsiku, Nissiku) was the Sumerian god of wisdom, fresh water, intelligence, trickery and mischief, crafts, magic, exorcism, healing, creation, virility, fertility, and art. Iconography depicts him...
Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text

The Enuma Elish (also known as The Seven Tablets of Creation) is the Babylonian creation myth whose title is derived from the opening lines of the piece, "When on High". The myth tells the story of the great god Marduk's victory over the...
Shulgi and Ninlil's Barge
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Shulgi and Ninlil's Barge

Shulgi and Ninlil's Barge is a Sumerian poem dated to the reign of Shulgi of Ur (2029-1982 BCE) celebrating the caulking of the barge of the goddess Ninlil, consort of the sky god Enlil, and the banquet held in the couple's honor by Shulgi...
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