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Mesopotamian Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Religion

Mesopotamian religion was central to the people's lives. Humans were created as co-laborers with their gods to hold off the forces of chaos and to keep the world running smoothly. As in ancient Egypt, the gods were honored daily for providing...
Religion in the Ancient World
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Religion in the Ancient World

Religion (from the Latin Religio, meaning 'restraint,' or Relegere, according to Cicero, meaning 'to repeat, to read again,' or, most likely, Religionem, 'to show respect for what is sacred') is an organized system of beliefs and practices...
The Mesopotamian Pantheon
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Mesopotamian Pantheon

The gods of the Mesopotamian region were not uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same...
Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife
Article by M. Choksi

Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife

Unlike the rich corpus of ancient Egyptian funerary texts, no such “guidebooks” from Mesopotamia detail the afterlife and the soul's fate after death. Instead, ancient Mesopotamian views of the afterlife must be pieced together...
Mesopotamian Literature
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Literature

Ancient Mesopotamian literature developed c. 2600 BCE after scribes, who had formerly been record keepers, began composing original works in the region of Sumer. The Sumerians invented writing c. 3500 BCE, refined the script c. 3200 BCE...
Mesopotamian Science and Technology
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Science and Technology

Mesopotamian science and technology developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic Period (2900-1750 BCE) of the Sumerian culture of southern Mesopotamia. The foundation of future Mesopotamian advances in scientific/technological...
Ancient Persian Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Religion

Ancient Persian religion was a polytheistic faith which corresponds roughly to what is known today as ancient Persian mythology. It first developed in the region known as Greater Iran (the Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia, and West Asia...
Carthaginian Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Religion

Carthage was founded by the Phoenician city of Tyre in the 9th century BCE, and along with many other cultural practices, the city adopted aspects of the religion of its founding fathers. Polytheistic in nature, such important Phoenician...
Roman Religion
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Religion

In many societies, ancient and modern, religion has performed a major role in their development, and the Roman Empire was no different. From the beginning Roman religion was polytheistic. From an initial array of gods and spirits, Rome added...
Mesopotamian Naru Literature
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Naru Literature

Mesopotamian Naru Literature was a literary genre, first appearing around the 2nd millennium BCE, which featured a famous person (usually a king) from history as the main character in a story that most often concerned humanity's relationship...
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