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Glazed Sarcophagi from Nippur
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Glazed Sarcophagi from Nippur

The smaller sarcophagus on the left belonged to a child. Baked clay and glazed. Parthian, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. From Nippur, Southern Mesopotamia, in modern-day Iraq. (Museum of Archaeology, Istanbul, Turkey).
Mesopotamian Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Religion

Mesopotamian religion was central to the people's lives. Humans were created as co-laborers with their gods to hold off the forces of chaos and to keep the world running smoothly. As in ancient Egypt, the gods were honored daily for providing...
Eridu Genesis
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Eridu Genesis

The Sumerian Flood Story (also known as the Eridu Genesis, The Flood Story, Sumerian Creation Myth, Sumerian Deluge Myth) is the oldest Mesopotamian text relating the tale of the Great Flood which would appear in later works such as the Atrahasis...
The Poor Man of Nippur - World's first film in Babylonian
Video by Cambridge Archaeology

The Poor Man of Nippur - World's first film in Babylonian

"The Poor Man of Nippur" is a c. 3,000-year-old comic folk tale in Babylonian language. The main manuscript is a clay tablet from 701 BC found at the site of Sultantepe, in South-East Turkey. Recounted by a third-party narrator, it tells...
Enlil
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Enlil

Enlil (also known as Ellil and Nunamnir) was the Sumerian god of the air in the Mesopotamian Pantheon but was more powerful than any other elemental deities and eventually was worshiped as King of the Gods. He is featured in a number of important...
Clay Figurine of a Naked Woman from Nippur
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Clay Figurine of a Naked Woman from Nippur

Clay figurine of a naked woman. She puts her hands on her breasts. Probably votive. From Nippur, Iraq. Isin-Larsa Period, 2000-1800 BCE. (The Sulaymaniyah Museum, Iraq).
The Mesopotamian Pantheon
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Mesopotamian Pantheon

The gods of the Mesopotamian region were not uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same...
Shulgi of Ur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Shulgi of Ur

Shulgi of Ur (r. 2029-1982 BCE) is considered the greatest king of the Ur III Period in Mesopotamia (2047-1750 BCE). His father was Ur-Nammu (r.2047-2030 BCE), who founded the Third Dynasty of Ur, and his mother was a daughter of King Utu-Hegal...
A Praise Poem of Shulgi
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Praise Poem of Shulgi

A Praise Poem of Shulgi (c. 2020-2000 BCE) is an ancient Sumerian document celebrating the famous run of 200 miles (321.8 km) in one day made by the king Shulgi of Ur (r. 2029-1982 BCE) to distinguish his reign by officiating at the religious...
A Praise Poem of Lipit-Estar
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Praise Poem of Lipit-Estar

A Praise Poem of Lipit-Estar is a Sumerian praise song honoring Lipit-Estar (also known as Lipit-Ishtar, r. c. 1870 to c. 1860 BCE), the fifth king of the First Dynasty of Isin, best known for his legal code written between the time of the...
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