Search Results: Mesopotamia

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Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia

In ancient Mesopotamia, the gods infused every aspect of daily life and this, of course, extended to health care. The goddess Gula (also known as Ninkarrak and Ninisinna) presided over health and healing aided by her consort Pabilsag (who...
Cuneiform
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Cuneiform

Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE. It is considered the most significant among the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian...
Mari
Definitionby Henry Curtis Pelgrift

Mari

Mari was a city-state located near the west bank of the Euphrates River in Northern Mesopotamia (now eastern Syria) during the Early Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age. One of the earliest known planned cities, Mari is believed to have...
Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Mesopotamia

Medical texts from ancient Mesopotamia provide prescriptions and practices for curing all manner of ailments, wounds, and diseases. There was one malady, however, which had no cure: passionate love. From a medical text found in Ashurbanipal's...
Sumerians
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sumerians

The Sumerians were the people of southern Mesopotamia whose civilization flourished between c. 4100-1750 BCE. Their name comes from the region which is frequently – and incorrectly – referred to as a “country”. Sumer was never a cohesive...
Beer in the Ancient World
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Beer in the Ancient World

The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication...
The Hymn to Ninkasi, Goddess of Beer
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Hymn to Ninkasi, Goddess of Beer

The Hymn to Ninkasi is at once a song of praise to Ninkasi, the Sumerian goddess of beer, and an ancient recipe for brewing. Written down around 1800 BCE, the hymn is no doubt much older as evidenced by the techniques it details which scholars...
Ur
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ur

Ur was a city in the region of Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, in what is modern-day Iraq. According to biblical tradition, the city is named after the man who founded the first settlement there, Ur, though this has been disputed. The city's...
Uruk
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE. Located in the southern region of Sumer (modern...
Hammurabi
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Hammurabi

Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 BCE) was the sixth king of the Amorite First Dynasty of Babylon best known for his famous law code which served as the model for others, including the Mosaic Law of the Bible. He was the first ruler able to successfully...