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Protestant Reformation
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) refers to the widespread religious, cultural, and social upheaval of 16th-century Europe that broke the hold of the medieval Church, allowing for the development of personal interpretations of the Christian...
English Reformation
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

English Reformation

The English Reformation began with Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) and continued in stages over the rest of the 16th century CE. The process witnessed the break away from the Catholic Church headed by the Pope in Rome. The Protestant...
Bohemian Reformation
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Bohemian Reformation

The Bohemian Reformation (c. 1380 to c. 1436) was the first concerted effort by Catholic clergy to reform the abuses and corruption of the medieval Church. Bohemian clerics and theologians called for reform and, like later advocates, initially...
Ten Women of the Protestant Reformation
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Women of the Protestant Reformation

Women played a vital role in the Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) not only by supporting the major reformers as wives but also through their own literary and political influence. Their contributions were largely marginalized in the past...
Pizan's The Status of Women & the Reformation
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Pizan's The Status of Women & the Reformation

The Book of the City of the Ladies (1405) by Christine de Pizan (l. 1364 - c. 1430) is considered by many scholars to be the first work of feminist literature, predating A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft by...
Marie Dentière
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Marie Dentière

Marie Dentière (l. c. 1495-1561) was a French theologian, writer, and street preacher who advanced the cause of the Protestant Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. Her written works were controversial primarily because she was a woman and...
International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall)
Imageby MHM55

International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall)

The International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall), Geneva, Switzerland. The monument honors the leading figures of Calvinism and was unveiled in 1909 on the 400th anniversary of the birth of John Calvin (l. 1509-1564). Reformer...
Kappel Wars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kappel Wars

The Kappel Wars (also known as the Wars of Kappel) were armed conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in Switzerland during the Swiss Reformation. The First Kappel War ended before it began in 1529, while the second, in 1531, concluded...
John Knox
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

John Knox

John Knox (l. c. 1514-1572) was a Scottish theologian and reformer famous for his work in advancing the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, his contentious relationship with Mary, Queen of Scots (l. 1542-1587), and establishing the Presbyterian...
Argula von Grumbach
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Argula von Grumbach

Argula von Grumbach (née von Stauff, l. 1490 to c. 1564) was a Bavarian theologian, writer, and reformer, who became a controversial figure after her 1523 letter To the University of Ingolstadt protesting the arrest of a young scholar for...
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