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John Knox
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

John Knox

John Knox (l. c. 1514-1572) was a Scottish theologian and reformer famous for his work in advancing the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, his contentious relationship with Mary, Queen of Scots (l. 1542-1587), and establishing the Presbyterian...
Montpellier during the French Reformation
Article by Stephen M Davis

Montpellier during the French Reformation

At the dawn of the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598), Montpellier in southern France had a significant Protestant minority that controlled the city's institutions. The Edict of Nantes in 1598 ended the wars and Protestants retained territorial...
Argula von Grumbach
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Argula von Grumbach

Argula von Grumbach (née von Stauff, l. 1490 to c. 1564) was a Bavarian theologian, writer, and reformer, who became a controversial figure after her 1523 letter To the University of Ingolstadt protesting the arrest of a young scholar for...
Henry VIII and the English Reformation Explained
Video by Kelly Macquire

Henry VIII and the English Reformation Explained

Did you know that the Protestant Reformation started in England because the king wanted a divorce? This video is all about the establishment of the Protestant Church of England by Henry VIII in the 16th century, best known as the English...
Müntzer's Vindication and Refutation
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Müntzer's Vindication and Refutation

The Vindication and Refutation of Thomas Müntzer (l. c. 1489-1525) is a 1524 open letter to Jesus Christ, Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546), and the Christian community charging Luther with hypocrisy, betraying his original vision to win support...
Reformation Wall
Image by Henri Bouchard and Paul Landowski 

Reformation Wall

William Farel (c. 1489-1565), Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605), John Calvin (1509-1564) and John Knox (1514-1572), stone monument portraying prominent figures of the Protestant Reformation, by Paul Landowski and Henri Bouchard, 1909. Geneva.
Thirty Years' War
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) was the last major European conflict informed by religious divisions and one of the most devastating in European history resulting in a death toll of approximately 8 million. Beginning as a local conflict...
Jeanne d'Albret
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne d’Albret (Joan III of Navarre, l. 1528-1572) was Queen of Navarre, daughter of Marguerite de Navarre (l. 1492-1549) and niece of King Francois I (Francis I of France, r. 1515-1547). She is best known for leading the Huguenots (French...
Reformation in Germany
Image by Eikon Film and NFP Teleart

Reformation in Germany

Joseph Fiennes as Martin Luther (1483-1546) in Luther (2003). Image credit: Eikon Film and NFP Teleart.
Sextus Empiricus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus (l. c. 160 to c. 210 CE) was a Greek Skeptic who developed the ideas of the earlier Greek Skeptic philosopher Pyrrho of Elis (l. c. 360 to c. 270 BCE) who claimed that tranquility of mind was attainable by suspending judgment...
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