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Marie Dentière's A Very Useful Epistle
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Marie Dentière's A Very Useful Epistle

A Very Useful Epistle (Epistre tres utile, 1539) is an open letter by the female reformer Marie Dentière (l. c. 1495-1561) to Marguerite of Navarre (l. 1492-1549) advocating for a greater role for women in the work of the Protestant Reformation...
Reformation Wall
Imageby Henri Bouchard and Paul Landowski 

Reformation Wall

William Farel (c. 1489-1565), Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605), John Calvin (1509-1564) and John Knox (1514-1572), stone monument portraying prominent figures of the Protestant Reformation, by Paul Landowski and Henri Bouchard, 1909. Geneva.
William Tyndale
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

William Tyndale

William Tyndale (l.c. 1494-1536) was a talented English linguist, scholar and priest who was the first to translate the Bible into English. Tyndale objected to the Catholic Church’s control of scripture in Latin and the prohibition against...
Andreas Karlstadt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Andreas Karlstadt

Andreas Karlstadt (also given as Carlstadt, l. 1486-1541) was a reformer, theologian, and early supporter of Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) in the movement that became known as the Protestant Reformation. Karlstadt was one of Luther's most...
Religions in Europe in the 16th Century
Imageby Simeon Netchev

Religions in Europe in the 16th Century

A map illustrating the dominant religious divisions in Europe as the Reformation revolution in the Catholic church burned through Europe in the 16th century. Meanwhile, at the edges of the continent, the Islam introduced to the Balkans by...
Reformation in Germany
Imageby Eikon Film and NFP Teleart

Reformation in Germany

Joseph Fiennes as Martin Luther (1483-1546) in Luther (2003). Image credit: Eikon Film and NFP Teleart.
Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola

The Autobiography of Saint Ignatius is the story of the life of Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) dictated by him to the Jesuit priest Father Louis Gonzalez between 1553-1555, shortly before Loyola's death in 1556. It is an account of his...
Ignatius of Loyola
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) was a Basque soldier who became a Catholic priest and theologian after a mystical experience convinced him he was called to the service of Christ. He founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) to defend the Church...
Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments,  and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes
Articleby John S. Knox

Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments, and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes

The Protestant Reformation was a period of religious history marked by a great defining, debating, and divergence on what it meant to be an orthodox, faithful Christian. To this end, many theologians offered their own explanations of the...
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was a widespread slaughter of French Protestants (Huguenots) by Catholics beginning on 24 August 1572 and lasting over two months, resulting in the deaths of between 5,000 and 25,000 people. It began in...
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