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Marie Dentière's A Very Useful Epistle
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Marie Dentière's A Very Useful Epistle

A Very Useful Epistle (Epistre tres utile, 1539) is an open letter by the female reformer Marie Dentière (l. c. 1495-1561) to Marguerite of Navarre (l. 1492-1549) advocating for a greater role for women in the work of the Protestant Reformation...
William Tyndale
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

William Tyndale

William Tyndale (l.c. 1494-1536) was a talented English linguist, scholar and priest who was the first to translate the Bible into English. Tyndale objected to the Catholic Church’s control of scripture in Latin and the prohibition against...
Andreas Karlstadt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Andreas Karlstadt

Andreas Karlstadt (also given as Carlstadt, l. 1486-1541) was a reformer, theologian, and early supporter of Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) in the movement that became known as the Protestant Reformation. Karlstadt was one of Luther's most...
Reformation in Germany
Image by Eikon Film and NFP Teleart

Reformation in Germany

Joseph Fiennes as Martin Luther (1483-1546) in Luther (2003). Image credit: Eikon Film and NFP Teleart.
Religions in Europe in the 16th Century
Image by Simeon Netchev

Religions in Europe in the 16th Century

A map illustrating the dominant religious divisions in Europe as the Reformation revolution in the Catholic church burned through Europe in the 16th century. Meanwhile, at the edges of the continent, the Islam introduced to the Balkans by...
Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola

The Autobiography of Saint Ignatius is the story of the life of Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) dictated by him to the Jesuit priest Father Louis Gonzalez between 1553-1555, shortly before Loyola's death in 1556. It is an account of his...
Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments,  and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes
Article by John S. Knox

Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments, and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes

The Protestant Reformation was a period of religious history marked by a great defining, debating, and divergence on what it meant to be an orthodox, faithful Christian. To this end, many theologians offered their own explanations of the...
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was a widespread slaughter of French Protestants (Huguenots) by Catholics beginning on 24 August 1572 and lasting over two months, resulting in the deaths of between 5,000 and 25,000 people. It began in...
Ignatius of Loyola
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) was a Basque soldier who became a Catholic priest and theologian after a mystical experience convinced him he was called to the service of Christ. He founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) to defend the Church...
Pre-Reformation Church Altar
Image by David Hawgood

Pre-Reformation Church Altar

A church altar from Jacobstow Church, Cornwall, England. During the English Reformation and reign of Edward VI of England (r. 1547-53 CE), the altar, like many others, was removed to be replaced by a communion table.
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