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Pre-Reformation Church Altar
Imageby David Hawgood

Pre-Reformation Church Altar

A church altar from Jacobstow Church, Cornwall, England. During the English Reformation and reign of Edward VI of England (r. 1547-53 CE), the altar, like many others, was removed to be replaced by a communion table.
Protestant Reformation in Switzerland
Imageby Ascot Elite Entertainment Group

Protestant Reformation in Switzerland

The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland as portrayed in the movie Zwingli (2019). © Ascot Elite Entertainment Group
Argula von Grumbach's To the University of Ingolstadt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Argula von Grumbach's To the University of Ingolstadt

To the University of Ingolstadt (1523) is an open letter by the German reformer Argula von Grumbach (l. 1490 to c. 1564) protesting the dismissal, arrest, and imprisonment of the young scholar Arsacius Seehofer (l. c. 1504 to c. 1539) for...
Two Accounts of Zwingli's Death
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Two Accounts of Zwingli's Death

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) died in the second of the Kappel Wars in 1531, a conflict between Catholic and Protestant forces. Afterwards, two accounts of his death emerged – one Catholic and one Protestant – differing in detail and notable...
Reformation & Consequences: Crash Course European History #7
Videoby CrashCourse

Reformation & Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

The Protestant Reformation didn't exactly begin with Martin Luther, and it didn't end with him either. Reformers and monarchs changed the ways that religious and state power were organized throughout the 16th and early 17th centuries. Jean...
Heinrich Bullinger
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Heinrich Bullinger

Heinrich Bullinger (l. 1504-1575) was a Swiss reformer, minister, and historian who succeeded Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) as leader of the Reformed Church in Switzerland and became the theological bridge between Zwingli's work and that...
John Calvin
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

John Calvin

John Calvin (l. 1509-1564) was a French Reformer, pastor, and theologian considered among the greatest of the Protestant Reformation along with Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) and Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531). Calvin synthesized the differing...
Thomas Müntzer
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Thomas Müntzer

Thomas Müntzer (l. c. 1489-1525) was a German theologian and apocalyptic preacher who became one of the leaders of the German Peasants' War (1524-1525). An early follower of the reformer Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546), Müntzer established his...
Katharina Zell
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Katharina Zell

Katharina Zell (also known as Katharina Schütz, Katharina Schütz-Zell, l. 1497-1562) was a reformer, theologian, and prolific writer in Strasbourg who helped establish the basic tenets of the Protestant Reformation without advancing sectarian...
Loyola's Spiritual Exercises
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Loyola's Spiritual Exercises

The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola (1548) is a manual of disciplines formulated by Ignatius Loyola (l. 1491-1556) to prepare one spiritually for Christian service. They were initially developed between 1522-1524 by Loyola for himself...
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