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Loyola's Spiritual Exercises
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Loyola's Spiritual Exercises

The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola (1548) is a manual of disciplines formulated by Ignatius Loyola (l. 1491-1556) to prepare one spiritually for Christian service. They were initially developed between 1522-1524 by Loyola for himself...
Index of Prohibited Books
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Index of Prohibited Books

The Index of Prohibited Books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum) was a list of written works condemned as heretical or injurious to the Christian faith by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1563. It remained in effect until 1966 when...
The English Reformation: AP Euro Bit by Bit #16
Videoby Paul Sargent

The English Reformation: AP Euro Bit by Bit #16

Yes, that's right. AP Euro Bit by Bit is back for a second season! I'm picking up with the English Reformation. While most of the Reformation happened because of doctrinal differences with the Roman Catholic Church, England's Reformation...
The Protestant Reformation: Crash Course
Videoby CrashCourse

The Protestant Reformation: Crash Course

You may have noticed that the internet is terrible at religious discourse. Well, this is not a new phenomenon. In the early 16th Century CE, the Roman Catholic church dominated Christianity in Europe, and the institution was starting to show...
Jeanne d'Albret
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne d’Albret (Joan III of Navarre, l. 1528-1572) was Queen of Navarre, daughter of Marguerite de Navarre (l. 1492-1549) and niece of King Francois I (Francis I of France, r. 1515-1547). She is best known for leading the Huguenots (French...
Martin Luther
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Martin Luther

Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) was a German priest, monk, and theologian who became the central figure of the religious and cultural movement known as the Protestant Reformation. Even though earlier reformers had expressed Luther's views, his...
Augsburg Confession
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Augsburg Confession

The Augsburg Confession is the affirmation of faith of the Lutheran Church written by Philip Melanchthon (l. 1497-1560) and presented at the Diet of Augsburg in June 1530. The document attempted to reconcile differences between the Lutherans...
Zwingli's 67 Articles
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Zwingli's 67 Articles

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) wrote his 67 Articles in 1523 as a confession of faith to be presented at the First Disputation in Zürich where he defended his beliefs against accusations of heresy by the Catholic Church. Zwingli's 67 Articles...
Zwingli's On Rejecting Lent and Protecting Christian Liberty
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Zwingli's On Rejecting Lent and Protecting Christian Liberty

Although Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1483-1531) began his Reformation efforts in Zürich in 1519, his first break with the Church came in 1522 when he defended a group of citizens who had broken the Lenten fast by eating sausages. The event, known...
The Catholic Counter-Reformation (AP Euro Review)
Videoby Tom Richey

The Catholic Counter-Reformation (AP Euro Review)

SWERVE, MARTIN LUTHER! Mr. Richey explains the key elements of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the Council of Trent, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), and Teresa of Avila. This lecture was designed specifically for students preparing...
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