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International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall)
Imageby MHM55

International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall)

The International Monument to the Reformation (Reformation Wall), Geneva, Switzerland. The monument honors the leading figures of Calvinism and was unveiled in 1909 on the 400th anniversary of the birth of John Calvin (l. 1509-1564). Reformer...
Kappel Wars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kappel Wars

The Kappel Wars (also known as the Wars of Kappel) were armed conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in Switzerland during the Swiss Reformation. The First Kappel War ended before it began in 1529, while the second, in 1531, concluded...
John Knox
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

John Knox

John Knox (l. c. 1514-1572) was a Scottish theologian and reformer famous for his work in advancing the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, his contentious relationship with Mary, Queen of Scots (l. 1542-1587), and establishing the Presbyterian...
Canons of the Council of Trent
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Canons of the Council of Trent

The Canons of the Council of Trent (1545-1563) were rules one was expected to follow in order to be a member of the Catholic Church and, according to the Church's teachings, merit the grace of God and eternal life in heaven after death. The...
Argula von Grumbach
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Argula von Grumbach

Argula von Grumbach (née von Stauff, l. 1490 to c. 1564) was a Bavarian theologian, writer, and reformer, who became a controversial figure after her 1523 letter To the University of Ingolstadt protesting the arrest of a young scholar for...
Jan Hus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jan Hus

Jan Hus (also John Huss, l. c. 1369-1415) was a Czech philosopher, priest, and theologian who, inspired by the work of John Wycliffe (l. 1330-1384) challenged the policies and practices of the medieval Church and so launched the Bohemian...
Sextus Empiricus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus (l. c. 160 to c. 210 CE) was a Greek Skeptic who developed the ideas of the earlier Greek Skeptic philosopher Pyrrho of Elis (l. c. 360 to c. 270 BCE) who claimed that tranquility of mind was attainable by suspending judgment...
Müntzer's Vindication and Refutation
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Müntzer's Vindication and Refutation

The Vindication and Refutation of Thomas Müntzer (l. c. 1489-1525) is a 1524 open letter to Jesus Christ, Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546), and the Christian community charging Luther with hypocrisy, betraying his original vision to win support...
Philip Melanchthon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (l. 1497-1560) was a German scholar and theologian who provided the intellectual rationale and systematized theology for the reformed vision of Christianity of his friend Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546). He was always overshadowed...
Huldrych Zwingli
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) was a Swiss priest who became the leader of the Protestant Reformation in the region at the same time Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) was active in Germany. Zwingli is known as the 'third man of the Reformation'...
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