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Counter-Reformation
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation (also known as the Catholic Reformation, 1545 to c. 1700) was the Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation (1517-1648). It is usually dated from the Council of Trent in 1545 to the end of the Great...
Ten Protestant Reformation Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Protestant Reformation Facts You Need to Know

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) was one of the most significant cultural, political, and religious events in the history of Europe and helped shape the modern world. It was a complex event spanning over 100 years, which radically changed...
Protestant Reformation
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) refers to the widespread religious, cultural, and social upheaval of 16th-century Europe that broke the hold of the medieval Church, allowing for the development of personal interpretations of the Christian...
Loyola's Spiritual Exercises
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Loyola's Spiritual Exercises

The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola (1548) is a manual of disciplines formulated by Ignatius Loyola (l. 1491-1556) to prepare one spiritually for Christian service. They were initially developed between 1522-1524 by Loyola for himself...
The Printing Press & the Protestant Reformation
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Printing Press & the Protestant Reformation

The printing press, credited to the German inventor and printer Johannes Gutenberg (l. c. 1398-1468) in the 1450s, became the single most important factor in the success of the Protestant Reformation by providing the means for widespread...
Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola

The Autobiography of Saint Ignatius is the story of the life of Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) dictated by him to the Jesuit priest Father Louis Gonzalez between 1553-1555, shortly before Loyola's death in 1556. It is an account of his...
Ignatius of Loyola
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola (l. 1491-1556) was a Basque soldier who became a Catholic priest and theologian after a mystical experience convinced him he was called to the service of Christ. He founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) to defend the Church...
Council of Trent
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (1545-1563) was a meeting of Catholic clerics convened by Pope Paul III (served 1534-1549) in response to the Protestant Reformation. In three separate sessions, the council reaffirmed the authority of the Catholic Church...
Jeanne de Jussie's Short Chronicle
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Jeanne de Jussie's Short Chronicle

Jeanne de Jussie's Short Chronicle (1535) is an eyewitness account by the nun Jeanne de Jussie (l. 1503-1561) relating how the Protestant Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland, impacted the lives of the sisters of her convent of Poor Clares...
Marie Dentière
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Marie Dentière

Marie Dentière (l. c. 1495-1561) was a French theologian, writer, and street preacher who advanced the cause of the Protestant Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. Her written works were controversial primarily because she was a woman and...
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