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Matter of Aratta
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Matter of Aratta

The Matter of Aratta is the modern-day title for a collection of four poems – Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Enmerkar and En-suhgir-ana, Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave, and Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird – concerning the rivalry between...
The Steam Engine & the Industrial Revolution
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Steam Engine & the Industrial Revolution

Steam power was one of the most significant developments of the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) in Britain. First invented as a pump in the 1690s, a host of inventors tweaked designs and tinkered with machinery until an efficient and powerful...
The Wreck of the HMS Gloucester
Articleby Pegasus Books

The Wreck of the HMS Gloucester

The HMS Gloucester was wrecked in the North Sea, about 30 miles off the shore of Norfolk, England, shortly after dawn on 6 May 1682. It was a warship in the navy of Charles II of England (r. 1660-1685), and at the time of its loss, it was...
Prehistoric Alpine Stilt Houses
Articleby Ingrid Garosi

Prehistoric Alpine Stilt Houses

Alpine stilt houses are a unique and fascinating aspect of prehistoric architecture in the Alps, which provide valuable insights into the lives and culture of the ancient communities. The houses were built by prehistoric communities living...
Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird

Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird is a Sumerian myth dated to the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) featuring the hero-king of Uruk, Lugalbanda, father of Gilgamesh, in his younger years as an honorable officer in the army. Lugalbanda's purity of...
Chariot Racing in Ancient Rome
Articleby Laura Kate C. McCormack

Chariot Racing in Ancient Rome

Chariot racing was very big business in ancient Rome. There was a whole industry built around the factions, the four professional stables known by their team colour – Blue, Green, Red, and White –, providing all that was required for a race...
Dialogue of Pessimism
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Dialogue of Pessimism

The Dialogue of Pessimism (c. 1000 BCE) is a Babylonian poem featuring a master and his slave in ten exchanges during which the master proposes an action, and the slave gives reasons for and against its pursuit. The piece has been interpreted...
The Debate Between Bird and Fish
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Debate Between Bird and Fish

The Debate Between Bird and Fish (c. 2000 BCE) is a Sumerian poem dated to the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) when the genre of the literary debate was especially popular. The poem is the earliest extant on the theme of difficult neighbors...
Gibbon's Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Gibbon's Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire

The English historian Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) wrote and published his seminal work History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire between 1776 and 1788. The dominant theme of Gibbon's six-volume work is that the fall of the Roman Empire...
Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia

In ancient Mesopotamia, the gods informed every aspect of daily life including the practice of medicine. Gula, the Sumerian goddess of healing, presided over the medical arts, guiding doctors and dentists in the treatment of health problems...
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