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Polybius' Capture of Achaeus and Fall of Sardis
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Polybius' Capture of Achaeus and Fall of Sardis

Polybius' Capture of Achaeus and Fall of Sardis is the account of the end of the Siege of Sardis (215-213 BCE) by Antiochus III (aka Antiochus the Great, r. 223-187 BCE) of the Seleucid Empire after the betrayal and capture of his cousin...
The Armies of the East India Company
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Armies of the East India Company

The East India Company (EIC) was first England's and then Britain's tool of colonial expansion in India and beyond. Revenue from trade and land taxes from territories it controlled allowed the EIC to build up its own private armies, collectively...
Trade Goods of the East India Company
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade Goods of the East India Company

The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600, and it came to control both trade and territories in India, as well as a trade monopoly with China. Goods the EIC traded included spices, cotton cloth, tea, and opium, all in such...
Top 10 Sights along Hadrian's Wall
Articleby Carole Raddato

Top 10 Sights along Hadrian's Wall

The 1,900th anniversary of the visit of the Roman emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE) to Britain and the construction of the wall that bears his name will be observed in 2022. A year-long festival will be held, filled with hundreds of events...
The Family in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Family in Ancient Mesopotamia

Family in ancient Mesopotamia was considered the essential unit that provided social stability in the present, maintained traditions of the past, and ensured the continuance of those traditions, customs, and stability for the future. The...
Louis IX and Capetian Politics at Paris' Sainte-Chapelle
Articleby Amanda Rundle

Louis IX and Capetian Politics at Paris' Sainte-Chapelle

The Sainte-Chapelle in Paris was originally consecrated as a private royal chapel in 1248 during the reign of King Louis IX of France (r. 1226-1270), who was known in life as rex christianissimus ('most Christian king') and canonized in death...
Xenophon's Defense of Socrates
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates (c. 371 BCE) is a passage from the Memorabilia of Xenophon (l. 430 to c. 354 BCE) in which he addresses the teachings and actions of Socrates of Athens and denounces the charges against him as unjust and unfounded...
Louis XVI, the Girondins, & the Road to Revolutionary War (1791-92)
Articleby Harrison W. Mark

Louis XVI, the Girondins, & the Road to Revolutionary War (1791-92)

On 20 April 1792, King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) stood before the Legislative Assembly and, with a faltering voice, read a declaration of war against Austria, to the ecstatic delight of the gathered deputies. This declaration sealed...
Antoine Court & the Church of the Desert
Articleby Stephen M Davis

Antoine Court & the Church of the Desert

In March 1715, Louis XIV of France (r. 1643-1715) issued a declaration stating that all subjects of the king were also subjects of the Catholic Church. In defiance of the king's decree, Antoine Court (l. 1696-1760) gathered a small group...
Anselm's Proslogion
Articleby Guy Jackson

Anselm's Proslogion

The Proslogion (Latin for Address or Discourse; the title was chosen because it is written in the form of a prayer addressed to God) is a book written by the medieval theologian St. Anselm of Canterbury (c. 1033-1109). It is of great significance...
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