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The Paris Impressionist Exhibitions, 1874-86
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Paris Impressionist Exhibitions, 1874-86

The impressionist exhibitions in Paris through the final quarter of the 19th century were organised by a group of avant-garde artists who struggled to have their innovative works accepted by the art establishment. Although ridiculed by many...
Legions of Late Antiquity
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of Late Antiquity

The Roman army underwent dramatic changes in Late Antiquity. Civil war and external conflicts led to the creation of new legions while existing legions were either split or disbanded. Although there was an increase in the number of legions...
The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
Articleby Tyler Perry

The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE

The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE was the high watermark in the First Jewish-Roman War (66-73 CE) regarding the tension between the two forces. With the Roman Empire transitioning from the Julio-Claudian emperors to the Flavian dynasty in the...
The Divinity of Jesus
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Divinity of Jesus

In the decades of the 20s and 30s of the 1st century CE, a Jew from the town of Nazareth in the Galilee began preaching that the God of Israel would soon intervene in history, restoring that nation to God's original plan and glory. From this...
Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments,  and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes
Articleby John S. Knox

Scripture, Faith, the Sacraments, and the Holy Spirit in Calvin’s Institutes

The Protestant Reformation was a period of religious history marked by a great defining, debating, and divergence on what it meant to be an orthodox, faithful Christian. To this end, many theologians offered their own explanations of the...
Chola Art & Architecture
Articleby Mark Merrony

Chola Art & Architecture

Like many great civilisations, the origins of the Chola, a Tamil Hindu dynasty in southern India, are shrouded in the temporal mists of uncertainty and obscurity. It is however known that they were influential from at least the 3rd century...
Legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, & Arabia
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, & Arabia

As the Roman Empire expanded further eastward, annexing territories that were once the domain of the Parthians, the legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, and Arabia were called upon to safeguard these newly acquired territories. Mesopotamia...
New Testament Text-Types
Articleby Peter Kauffner

New Testament Text-Types

The books of the New Testament were written in the 1st century CE. As Christianity spread in the 2nd century CE, many copies were made, some by non-professionals. Early manuscripts are considered to be closer to the original than later manuscripts...
Julius Caesar in Britain
Articleby Oxford University Press

Julius Caesar in Britain

By the time he led his invasions of Britain, Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) was already an experienced politician and successful military commander. As a member of a patrician family which claimed a pedigree reaching back even earlier than the...
Interview: Conquering the Ocean by Richard Hingley
Articleby Kelly Macquire

Interview: Conquering the Ocean by Richard Hingley

In this interview, World History Encyclopedia sits down with author Richard Hingly to chat about his new book Conquering the Ocean: The Roman Invasion of Britain published by Oxford University Press. Kelly: Do you want to tell us a bit...
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