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Wihio Tales
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Wihio Tales

Wihio tales are the Cheyenne legends featuring the trickster figure Wihio, who appears, variously, as a wise man, fool, villain, or hero and is associated with the spider. Wihio Tales continue to be as popular with the Cheyenne today as they...
Cheyenne Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Cheyenne Afterlife

The Cheyenne afterlife is envisioned as a continuation of life on earth. The spirit leaves the body and travels the long road of the Milky Way to arrive at a village very like what one has always known and is greeted by those who have gone...
The Wonderful Sack
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Wonderful Sack

The Wonderful Sack is a legend of the Cheyenne nation and one of the Wihio tales, featuring the trickster figure Wihio, similar to the Lakota Sioux character Iktomi (also known as Unktomi) of the famous Iktomi tales. Although the date of...
A Story of Faith
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Story of Faith

A Story of Faith is a legend of the Pawnee nation similar in theme to The Boy Who Was Sacrificed and featuring the same sacred animals – the Nahu'rac – who serve Ti-ra'wa ("Father Above") from their homes in five mystical places. This story...
Roman Students in Athens
Article by Laura Kate C. McCormack

Roman Students in Athens

Training in oratory was a crucial part of Roman education; it was associated with a young boy's transition into adult life. As Athens was considered the intellectual centre of the eastern Mediterranean, many students undertook long journeys...
Wihio and Coyote
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Wihio and Coyote

Wihio and Coyote is a tale of the Cheyenne nation featuring the trickster figure Wihio in the dual role of villain and victim. The trickster figure appears in the stories of many different Native American nations as an often unwilling or...
Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga (10 May 1775) was a military operation that occurred early in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). A small colonial expedition jointly led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen surprised the British garrison...
Women in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Women in the American Revolution

In Colonial America, women were discouraged from taking an interest in politics and were instead expected to focus only on traditionally 'feminine' matters, such as homemaking and childrearing. However, such gender roles were challenged during...
Black Elk on the Battle of the Little Bighorn
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Black Elk on the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Black Elk (l. 1863-1950) of the Oglala Lakota Sioux was twelve years old at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on 25 June 1876. He gives his account of the famous conflict in the work Black Elk Speaks (1932), and, even at a distance from the...
African Americans in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

African Americans in the American Revolution

On the eve of the American Revolution (1765-1789), the Thirteen Colonies had a population of roughly 2.1 million people. Around 500,000 of these were African Americans, of whom approximately 450,000 were enslaved. Comprising such a large...
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