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Women in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Women in the American Revolution

In Colonial America, women were discouraged from taking an interest in politics and were instead expected to focus only on traditionally 'feminine' matters, such as homemaking and childrearing. However, such gender roles were challenged during...
Black Elk on the Battle of the Little Bighorn
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Black Elk on the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Black Elk (l. 1863-1950) of the Oglala Lakota Sioux was twelve years old at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on 25 June 1876. He gives his account of the famous conflict in the work Black Elk Speaks (1932), and, even at a distance from the...
African Americans in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

African Americans in the American Revolution

On the eve of the American Revolution (1765-1789), the Thirteen Colonies had a population of roughly 2.1 million people. Around 500,000 of these were African Americans, of whom approximately 450,000 were enslaved. Comprising such a large...
Battle of Guilford Court House
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Guilford Court House

The Battle of Guilford Court House (15 March 1781) was one of the last major engagements of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Fought near Greensboro, North Carolina, it was a pyrrhic victory for the British army under Lord Charles...
Sioux Life Lessons: Iktomi and the Muskrat & Iktomi's Blanket
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sioux Life Lessons: Iktomi and the Muskrat & Iktomi's Blanket

The Sioux stories known as Iktomi tales concern the trickster figure Iktomi (also known as Unktomi) who appears, variously, as a hero, sage, villain, clown, inept buffoon – or in other roles – but always serves to illustrate some important...
Iktomi Tales
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Iktomi Tales

Iktomi (also known as Unktomi) is a trickster figure of the lore of the Lakota Sioux nation similar to tricksters of other nations, such as Wihio of the Cheyenne, Nanabozho (Manabozho) of the Ojibwe, Coyote of the Navajo, or Glooscap of the...
Eastman's Biography of Red Cloud
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Eastman's Biography of Red Cloud

Eastman's biography of Red Cloud (l. 1822-1909) is the first narrative of his Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains (1916), and it sets the tone for those that follow, including the pieces on Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, in explaining the motivation...
Charles A. Eastman on Crazy Horse
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Charles A. Eastman on Crazy Horse

Charles A. Eastman's biography of Crazy Horse (l. c. 1840-1877) is among the most significant sources on the great Sioux war chief, as Eastman drew on accounts of those who had known and fought alongside him in writing it. The work differs...
White Plume
Article by Joshua J. Mark

White Plume

White Plume is a hero tale of the Sioux nation featuring the supernatural trickster figure Unktomi (Iktomi) who serves as a catalyst for transformation, whether for good or ill. In this story, Unktomi is the villain whereas in others, such...
Diversity in Church Architecture in Medieval England
Article by Nick Miller

Diversity in Church Architecture in Medieval England

Medieval English churches differed in size and layout. Their original and evolving role(s), financial and material resources, and architectural fashions helped determine variability. However, their look ultimately grew from a constant symbiosis...
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