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Saratoga Campaign
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Saratoga Campaign

The Saratoga Campaign (20 June to 17 October 1777) was one of the most important military campaigns of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), in which a British army under General John Burgoyne invaded the Hudson River Valley but was...
The Idea of the Sublime in the Enlightenment
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Idea of the Sublime in the Enlightenment

During the European Enlightenment, a concept was developed in philosophy and aesthetics called the sublime. In the arts, literature, and the works of intellectuals, the sublime referred to the awe-inspiring capacity of nature and beauty...
The Wise Man of Chief Mountain
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Wise Man of Chief Mountain

The Wise Man of Chief Mountain is an origin story of the Blackfeet nation explaining how they came to wear brightly colored clothing. Although Native American nations generally wore clothing dyed different colors, the Blackfeet were famous...
Mark Antony's Parthian Campaign
Article by Oxford University Press

Mark Antony's Parthian Campaign

In 36 BCE, Mark Antony (83-30 BCE) invaded Parthia, hoping to render himself one of the great conquerors of the Greco-Roman world, but he was stymied by Parthian forces and obliged to undertake an arduous, costly retreat. What to make of...
Battle of Germantown
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Germantown

The Battle of Germantown (4 October 1777) was a major battle of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) in which General George Washington launched an unsuccessful assault on the British army garrisoned in Germantown, Pennsylvania. After...
Battle of Brandywine
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Brandywine

The Battle of Brandywine (11 September 1777) was a major battle of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), fought between a British army under Sir William Howe and the American Continental Army led by General George Washington. The battle...
Natural Rights & the Enlightenment
Article by Mark Cartwright

Natural Rights & the Enlightenment

The idea of natural rights is the concept used in philosophy and legal studies that a person has certain rights from birth and which, because they were not awarded by a particular state or legal authority, cannot be removed, that is, they...
Mark Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral
Article by Oxford University Press

Mark Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral

Amid the chaos and strife following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, Mark Antony (83-30 BCE), with the advice of Cicero, persuaded the Roman Senate to declare an amnesty which pardoned the Liberators and accepted the legitimacy...
Parisian Salons & the Enlightenment
Article by Mark Cartwright

Parisian Salons & the Enlightenment

The salon was a notably French cultural event, a private social gathering where a mixture of guests openly discussed art, literature, philosophy, music, and politics. Salons were particularly but not exclusively associated with Paris and...
Eastman's Account and Media Coverage of the Wounded Knee Massacre
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Eastman's Account and Media Coverage of the Wounded Knee Massacre

Of the many first-person accounts of the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre, the report by Sioux author and physician Charles A. Eastman (also known as Ohiyesa, l. 1858-1939) is among the best-known. Eastman describes his experiences...
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