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The Changing Interpretation of the Spanish Conquest in the Americas
Article by Oxford University Press

The Changing Interpretation of the Spanish Conquest in the Americas

The fall in 1519 of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Mexica or Aztec Empire, as it was later called, laid the foundation for the Spanish colonial empire on the North American mainland. It was the first time that Europeans had subjugated a...
Battle of Civitate
Article by Christopher L. Serafin

Battle of Civitate

The Battle of Civitate was fought in southeastern Italy on 18 June 1053 between a papal army of Pope Leo IX (r. 1049-1054) and an outnumbered force of Norman knights seeking recognition of their conquests and titles. The Normans were victorious...
Battle of Marengo
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Marengo

The Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) was one of the most important battles in the career of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). It not only helped bring the French Revolutionary Wars to an end but also did much to consolidate Bonaparte's new...
Ten Juneteenth Myths
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Juneteenth Myths

The celebration of Juneteenth – originally known as "Freedom Day" – began on 1 January 1866 in Texas and, since then, a number of myths have grown up around the event it commemorates: the issuance of General Order No. 3 in Galveston Texas...
Battle of the Nile
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of the Nile

The Battle of the Nile (1-2 August 1798), or the Battle of Aboukir Bay, saw a British fleet led by Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) destroy a French fleet at Aboukir Bay near the Rosetta mouth of the Nile River. It was one of the...
History of Juneteenth
Article by Joshua J. Mark

History of Juneteenth

Juneteenth is an annual event celebrating the end of chattel slavery in the United States in commemorating the issuance of General Order No. 3 (which included the line "all slaves are free") in Galveston, Texas on 19 June 1865. In 2021, Juneteenth...
Life of Plato of Athens
Article by Oxford University Press

Life of Plato of Athens

Plato of Athens (424 or 423 to 347 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher whose work is considered so important that he may be called the inventor of philosophy as we understand the term today. Some people would want to reserve that honor...
Battle of the Pyramids
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of the Pyramids

The Battle of the Pyramids (21 July 1798), or the Battle of Embabeh, was a significant battle fought during Napoleon's Campaign in Egypt and Syria. On a battlefield 15 km (9 mi) away from the Great Pyramid of Giza, Napoleon Bonaparte's French...
Montpellier during the French Reformation
Article by Stephen M Davis

Montpellier during the French Reformation

At the dawn of the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598), Montpellier in southern France had a significant Protestant minority that controlled the city's institutions. The Edict of Nantes in 1598 ended the wars and Protestants retained territorial...
Battle of Rivoli
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Rivoli

The Battle of Rivoli (14-15 January 1797) was the climactic battle of Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. A fourth and final attempt by the Austrian army to relieve the siege of Mantua was thwarted by Napoleon Bonaparte's Army of Italy...
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