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Buffalo and the Plains Indians
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Buffalo and the Plains Indians

The buffalo were essential to the Plains Indians, and other Native American nations, as they were not only a vital food source but were regarded as a sacred gift the Creator had provided especially for the people. Buffalo (bison) supplied...
The Life and Death of Sweet Medicine
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Life and Death of Sweet Medicine

The Life and Death of Sweet Medicine is a Cheyenne tale of the great prophet and law-giver Sweet Medicine who received the sacred Four Arrows, structure of government, and rules of society from Maheo, the Wise One Above, and predicted the...
American Invasion of Quebec
Article by Harrison W. Mark

American Invasion of Quebec

The American invasion of Quebec (September 1775-June 1776) was a military campaign undertaken during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Hoping to induce the Province of Quebec to join the rebellion, the Second Continental Congress...
Cheyenne Legends of the Buffalo
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Cheyenne Legends of the Buffalo

Two popular Cheyenne legends are the Origin of the Buffalo and How the Buffalo Hunt Began (also known as The Great Race), both dealing with the importance of the North American bison to the Cheyenne nation. Like others of the Plains Indians...
The Ghost Bride
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Ghost Bride

The Ghost Bride is a story from the Pawnee nation on the danger of interacting with ghosts but also emphasizes the importance of keeping one's word, whether with the living or the dead. The young man in the tale does not know he is dealing...
Olive Branch Petition
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Olive Branch Petition

The Olive Branch Petition was a letter adopted by the Second Continental Congress on 5 July 1775 and sent to King George III of Great Britain (r. 1760-1820) in a final attempt at reconciliation in the early months of the American Revolutionary...
The Girl Who Was the Ring
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Girl Who Was the Ring

The Girl Who Was the Ring is a Pawnee legend committed to writing by the anthropologist George Bird Grinnell (l. 1849-1938) in his work The Punishment of the Stingy and Other Indian Stories (1901). The story highlights the Native American...
Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death

"Give me liberty or give me death!” is the closing line from a speech made by Patrick Henry to the Second Virginia Convention on 23 March 1775, in which he argued that war with Britain was inevitable and a militia should be raised to defend...
Ten North American Native Facts You Need To Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten North American Native Facts You Need To Know

The history and culture of the Native Peoples of North America are often overlooked as they have been largely eclipsed by the history of the European settlers who colonized the region beginning in the 17th century. The original inhabitants...
Siege of Boston
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Siege of Boston

The Siege of Boston (19 April 1775 to 17 March 1776) was the first major military operation of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). After the first shots were fired at the Battles of Lexington and Concord, American colonial militias...
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