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Ibn Sina, Biruni, and the Lost Enlightenment
Article by Oxford University Press

Ibn Sina, Biruni, and the Lost Enlightenment

Ibn Sina and Biruni were two of the most outstanding thinkers to have lived between ancient Greece and the European Renaissance. These two giants of a lost era of enlightenment were born in Central Asia about the year 980. For six hundred...
The Ghost Wife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Ghost Wife

The Ghost Wife is a Pawnee story dealing with loss, grief, the inability to let go of the past, and the danger of dealing with ghosts. It reflects the Pawnee understanding of the unpredictable nature of life, the certainty of death, and the...
Observatories in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Observatories in the Scientific Revolution

The foundation of observatories during the Scientific Revolution (1500-1700) followed a process of evolution from entirely independent observatories operated by a single astronomer to private observatories which received state or private...
Seven Sacred Rites of the Lakota Sioux
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Seven Sacred Rites of the Lakota Sioux

The Seven Sacred Rites of the Lakota Sioux (Seven Sacred Rites of the Lakota Oyate) are the spiritual observances of the Native American Sioux nation that maintain their relationship with the Great Mystery/Great Spirit Wakan Tanka, the creative...
Hidatsa Sun Dance Ritual
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Hidatsa Sun Dance Ritual

The Hidatsa Sun Dance Ritual (also known as Hidatsa Sun Dance) is a Native American story of the Hidatsa nation illustrating the practice of an individual initiating the Sun Dance for personal reasons, in this case, to win the hand of the...
Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution

The astronomers of the Scientific Revolution rejected long-held theories of ancient thinkers like Claudius Ptolemy and Aristotle and instead set out to systematically observe the heavens in order to create a model of the universe that fit...
Native American Concept of Land Ownership
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Native American Concept of Land Ownership

The Native American concept of land ownership differs significantly from that of the European settlers who colonized the Americas or their descendants in that land could not be owned, only stewarded and lived with. The Earth is understood...
Battle of Waterloo
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Waterloo

The Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815) was the last major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), fought by a French army under Emperor Napoleon I (r. 1804-1814; 1815) against two armies of the Seventh Coalition. Waterloo resulted in...
The Reforms of Peter the Great
Article by Liana Miate

The Reforms of Peter the Great

Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great, l. 1672-1725) was the Tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1721 and the Emperor of Russia from 1721-1725. The lasting impression of Peter's long reign is the significant changes he brought to Russia due to his various...
Women Scientists in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women Scientists in the Scientific Revolution

Women scientists during the Scientific Revolution (1500-1700) were few in number because male-dominated educational institutions, as well as scientific societies and academies, barred women entry, meaning that few had the education or opportunity...
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