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Battle of Arcole
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Arcole

The Battle of Arcole (15-17 November 1796), or Arcola, was a three-day battle fought between Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy and an Austrian army under József Alvinczi. Part of Napoleon's Italian Campaign, the battle foiled Austria's...
Augustus' Political, Social, & Moral Reforms
Article by Steven Fife

Augustus' Political, Social, & Moral Reforms

Augustus is well known for being the first Emperor of Rome, but even more than that, for being a self-proclaimed “Restorer of the Republic.” He believed in ancestral values such as monogamy, chastity, and piety (virtue). Thus, he introduced...
The Triumphal Feast of Vitellius
Article by Peter Stothard

The Triumphal Feast of Vitellius

The emperor Aulus Vitellius (r. 69 CE) had never wanted to be Rome's emperor. Aulus was from a family of court flatterers to the first Caesars, and when his friend Nero (r. 54-68 CE) was dead, and there were no more Caesars to succeed, he...
Battle of Castiglione
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Castiglione

The Battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was one of the most important battles of Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. After laying siege to the vital fortress of Mantua, General Napoleon Bonaparte and his Army of Italy defeated an Austrian...
Battle of Lodi
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Lodi

The Battle of Lodi (10 May 1796) was a minor, yet important, engagement during Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. Although the battle itself held little military significance, victory at Lodi gave General Napoleon Bonaparte the respect...
Social Change in the British Industrial Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Social Change in the British Industrial Revolution

The British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) witnessed a great number of technical innovations, such as steam-powered machines, which resulted in new working practices, which in turn brought many social changes. More women and children worked...
The Impact of the British Industrial Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Impact of the British Industrial Revolution

The consequences of the British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) were many, varied, and long-lasting. Working life in rural and urban settings was changed forever by the inventions of new machines, the spread of factories, and the decline...
Roman Education
Article by Laura Kate C. McCormack

Roman Education

Roman education had its first 'primary schools' in the 3rd century BCE, but they were not compulsory and depended entirely on tuition fees. There were no official schools in Rome, nor were there buildings used specifically for the purpose...
Vikings in Wales
Article by Mike Toth

Vikings in Wales

The Norse may have ruled parts of northern Wales in the early 11th century, specifically in Anglesey and Gwynedd, though the degree to which is unclear. Old Norse had relatively little impact on Welsh linguistics, and the Old Norse influenced...
Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Britain
Article by Mark Cartwright

Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Britain

The Industrial Revolution saw a wave of technological and social changes in many countries of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it began in Britain for a number of specific reasons. Britain had cheap energy with its abundant supply...
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