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Making the Sacred Bundle
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Making the Sacred Bundle

Making the Sacred Bundle is an origin story of the medicine bag from the Pawnee nation. A medicine bag is a pouch or bundle containing items of resonant spiritual power for an individual or the tribal community that symbolize and maintain...
Origin of the Sweat Lodge
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Origin of the Sweat Lodge

The sweat lodge is a temporary or permanent structure integral to Native American culture and frequently used in spiritual ceremonies. The lodge is often a low, dome-shaped, structure heated by hot rocks which produce steam as water is poured...
Battle of Leipzig
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Battle of Leipzig

The Battle of Leipzig (16-19 October 1813), or the Battle of the Nations, was the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), featuring over half a million soldiers and resulting in over 100,000 total casualties. The climax of the...
A Teton Ghost Story
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Teton Ghost Story

A Teton Ghost Story is a tale from the Native American Teton (Tetonwan) of the Oceti Sakowin (People of the Seven Council Fires), better known as the Sioux, on one of the possibilities of the state of the soul after death and how the living...
The Foundation of the Royal Society
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Foundation of the Royal Society

The Royal Society was founded in 1662 to promote scientific research and increase our knowledge of the natural world. With royal patronage and a stellar membership of great minds, the society quickly gained international recognition for its...
Mandan Buffalo Dance
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Mandan Buffalo Dance

The Mandan Buffalo Dance is a ceremonial ritual observed in the modern era to honor the spirit of the buffalo and preserve Native American cultural traditions and was performed in the past for the same reasons just prior to the buffalo-hunting...
Native American Land & The Mysterious Butte Legend
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Native American Land & The Mysterious Butte Legend

The Native American understanding of the land as a living thing, providing for, guiding, and speaking to the people, is expressed in many of their stories, legends, and lore and, among these, in the Sioux legend of The Mysterious Butte in...
Sioux Story of The Gift of Corn
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sioux Story of The Gift of Corn

Corn (maize) was central to the lives of Native Americans across North, Central, and South America. Maize was introduced to North America from Mesoamerica c. 700/900 CE and transformed the lives of the indigenous peoples. Every tribal nation...
Lakota Sioux Creation Story
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Lakota Sioux Creation Story

The Lakota Sioux, like other tribal nations, had many versions of a creation story but all involved Wakan Tanka (Great Mystery or Great Spirit), the supreme creative power in the universe, who made all things and so caused all to be related...
Sioux Ceremonial Pipe
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sioux Ceremonial Pipe

The Sioux ceremonial pipe is a sacred object of the Sioux nation used in the seven sacred rites as well as other observances to connect the people with the Great Spirit (Wakan Tanka), Mother Earth, the spirit world, and each other. Pipe rituals...
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