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Women of the Protestant Reformation
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Women of the Protestant Reformation

The contributions of women to the Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) were frequently marginalized in the past but have gained wider recognition in the present era. Many women played important roles in spreading the new vision of Christianity...
Literature of Mesopotamia
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Literature of Mesopotamia

The literature of Mesopotamia dates from c. 2600 BCE when scribes began composing original works in the region of Sumer. The Sumerians invented writing c. 3500 BCE, but it was then mostly used for record-keeping. The literature of ancient...
10 Maps of Bronze Age Empires
Image Gallery by Simeon Netchev

10 Maps of Bronze Age Empires

During the Bronze Age, which spanned roughly from 3300 BCE to 1200 BCE, several powerful empires emerged, shaping the course of early civilization. In this collection of ten maps, we take a look at the empires that flourished in regions such...
LGBTQ+ Relationships in the Ancient World
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

LGBTQ+ Relationships in the Ancient World

Evidence of what is now defined as LGBTQ+ relationships goes back to over 4,000 years of recorded history to ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia but was not regarded as anything special since, generally speaking, gay relationships and those now...
Persian Poets and Literature
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Persian Poets and Literature

Persian literature is usually dated to the Behistun Inscription of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) at c. 522 BCE. It is generally understood that a significant body of work was created by Persian writers between that time and c. 330...
4 Maps of Epic Ancient Quests
Image Gallery by Simeon Netchev

4 Maps of Epic Ancient Quests

In this gallery, we cross the ancient Mediterranean world four times to follow the adventures of four great heroes from Greek and Roman mythology. Here are visual representations of timeless tales of heroism, divine challenges, and fearsome...
Mesopotamian Gods
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Gods

The gods of Mesopotamia are first evidenced during the Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE) when temples were raised to them, but their worship developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and their names appear in writing beginning in the...
Mesopotamian Goddesses
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Goddesses

Mesopotamian goddesses are among the oldest in the world. Inanna is commonly referenced as the most ancient goddess, first worshipped during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE). Veneration of Inanna and the others developed throughout the Early...
Ancient Egyptian Gods
Collection by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Gods

The worship of Egyptian gods dates to the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c. 6000 to c. 3150 BCE) but is no doubt much older as the veneration of these deities was already established in rudimentary form through rock carvings dated to c. 6000...
7 Maps of the Spanish Colonial Empire
Image Gallery by Simeon Netchev

7 Maps of the Spanish Colonial Empire

In this gallery of seven maps, we examine the vast overseas territories of the Spanish Empire from the late 15th century to the 19th century. The empire reached its height during the Age of Exploration and included regions in the Americas...
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