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Trade in the Ancient World
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Ancient World

Trade has been going on for as long as humans have needed or wanted something that others had and they did not. Bartering for goods and trade in kind developed into more sophisticated forms of exchanges using commonly agreed commodity currencies...
Love & Sex in the Ancient World
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Love & Sex in the Ancient World

Love in antiquity, just as today, expressed itself in all kinds of relationships, meanings, connotations, and expectations. There were representations in art, literature, and religion of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual love, the temporary...
The Norman Conquest of 1066 CE
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

The Norman Conquest of 1066 CE

The Norman Conquest entirely changed the history of England from 1066 CE onwards. After Harold II's defeat and death at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 CE, William the Conqueror was made the new king, the Norman elite completely replaced the...
Food in the Ancient World
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Food in the Ancient World

Meals in the ancient Mediterranean revolved around the common staples of cereals, vegetables, fruit, and olive oil, with an occasional bit of fish and meat thrown in for those who could afford it. The Phoenicians and Greeks then spread their...
Great Military Commanders from Antiquity
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Great Military Commanders from Antiquity

In antiquity, certain military commanders were so formidable on the battlefield that they were responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Epaminondas saw off mighty Sparta and almost single-handedly gave Greek Thebes its one and...
Life in a Medieval Castle
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Life in a Medieval Castle

Protecting strategically important coastlines, passes, and roadways, castles were an essential part of medieval warfare. With such key features as a tower keep, fortified gatehouses, curtain walls with crenellations and a surrounding moat...
Pharaoh of Egypt
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Pharaoh of Egypt

Early ancient Egypt was ruled by kings, and only from the New Kingdom period (c. 1570 - c. 1069 BCE) did the title of 'pharaoh' appear. Considered a god on earth and the supreme ruler of his people, a pharaoh was one of the most powerful...
Vikings TV Series Characters: History & Legend
Collectionby Joshua J. Mark

Vikings TV Series Characters: History & Legend

The History Channel's Vikings (2013-present) is historical fiction drawing on characters and events from the Viking Age (c. 790 - c. 1100 CE) and focusing primarily on the legendary Viking leader Ragnar Lothbrok and his sons. Created and...
Women in the Ancient World
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Women in the Ancient World

In many cultures of antiquity women had to battle the disadvantages of rules and conventions made for men and by men who dominated government, public life, and society. Nevertheless, many ancient religions had powerful female goddesses like...
Colonization in the Ancient Mediterranean
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Colonization in the Ancient Mediterranean

Colonization of the ancient Mediterranean had been taking place since the Bronze Age, especially with Minoan and Mycenaean expansion, but it was the Phoenicians from the 10th century CE that really took the whole idea to a new level. The...