Europe Timeline

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  • c. 45000 BCE
    Potential earliest arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe.
  • 30000 BCE - 12000 BCE
    Cave art culture in Europe.
  • c. 20000 BCE
    Cave painting flourishes in Spain and France, the most famous being the Cave of Lascaux in France.
  • 5000 BCE
    Hierarchical societies emerge in southeast Europe.
  • c. 5000 BCE
    Cultivation of peas in Europe.
  • 4300 BCE
    First megalithic tombs in Europe.
  • 3500 BCE
    Farming has spread across Europe.
  • c. 3300 BCE - c. 1200 BCE
    The Bronze Age, lasting from c. 3300 BCE- c. 1200 BCE in the Near East and South Asia and c. 600 BCE in Europe.
  • 2800 BCE - 1900 BCE
    Bell beaker culture in western Europe.
  • 2300 BCE
    Bronze is used in the Aegean.
  • 2000 BCE - 1500 BCE
    Wessex culture introduces bronze working to Britain.
  • c. 2000 BCE
    Bronze Age begins in Northern Europe.
  • 1500 BCE
    Pastoral farming spreads across Eurasian steppes.
  • c. 1400 BCE
    The beginning of Celtic culture in the upper Danube region of central Europe.
  • c. 1200 BCE - c. 450 BCE
    Widest date range accepted by scholars for the Hallstatt culture in central Europe.
  • 1100 BCE
    Dorian peoples occupy Greece.
  • 1100 BCE
    Hillforts in western Europe.
  • 1000 BCE
    Iron working in southern Europe.
  • c. 900 BCE
    Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
  • c. 800 BCE - c. 600 BCE
    The Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture is at its peak in central Europe.
  • 700 BCE
    Iron in wide use across Europe.
  • c. 513 BCE - c. 512 BCE
    Darius I of Persia campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
  • c. 450 BCE - c. 50 BCE
    Period of the La Tène culture in northern/western/central Europe.
  • 193 BCE
    The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
  • 58 BCE
    Julius Caesar invades Gaul. Roman influence on the European tribes begins in earnest.
  • 300 CE - 700 CE
    Migration Age in Europe.
  • c. 476 CE - 1500 CE
    The Catholic Church holds supreme power in Europe during the Middle Ages.
  • c. 1050 CE - c. 1250 CE
    Feudalism is the dominant system of land ownership in northern medieval Europe.
  • 1347 CE - 1352 CE
    The Black Death plague sweeps across Europe.
  • 1453 CE
    The Ottoman Empire closes the overland Silk Road trade routes between Europe and the East, initiating the European Age of Discovery.