Europe is a continent forming the westernmost part of the land mass of Eurasia and comprised of 49 sovereign states. Its name may come from the Greek myth of Europa, but human habitation of the region predates that tale, going back over 150,000 years. It is the birthplace of Western Civilization and the modern concept of the state.

More about: Europe


  • c. 45000 BCE
    Potential earliest arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe.
  • 30000 BCE - 12000 BCE
    Cave art culture in Europe.
  • c. 20000 BCE
    Cave painting flourishes in Spain and France, the most famous being the Cave of Lascaux in France.
  • 5000 BCE
    Hierarchical societies emerge in southeast Europe.
  • c. 5000 BCE
    Cultivation of peas in Europe.
  • 4300 BCE
    First megalithic tombs in Europe.
  • 3500 BCE
    Farming has spread across Europe.
  • c. 3300 BCE - c. 1200 BCE
    The Bronze Age, lasting from c. 3300 BCE- c. 1200 BCE in the Near East and South Asia and c. 600 BCE in Europe.
  • 2800 BCE - 1900 BCE
    Bell beaker culture in western Europe.
  • 2300 BCE
    Bronze is used in the Aegean.
  • 2000 BCE - 1500 BCE
    Wessex culture introduces bronze working to Britain.
  • c. 2000 BCE
    Bronze Age begins in Northern Europe.
  • 1500 BCE
    Pastoral farming spreads across Eurasian steppes.
  • c. 1400 BCE
    The beginning of Celtic culture in the upper Danube region of central Europe.
  • c. 1200 BCE - c. 450 BCE
    Widest date range accepted by scholars for the Hallstatt culture in central Europe.
  • 1100 BCE
    Dorian peoples occupy Greece.
  • 1100 BCE
    Hillforts in western Europe.
  • 1000 BCE
    Iron working in southern Europe.
  • c. 900 BCE
    Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
  • c. 800 BCE - c. 600 BCE
    The Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture is at its peak in central Europe.
  • 700 BCE
    Iron in wide use across Europe.
  • c. 513 BCE - c. 512 BCE
    Darius I of Persia campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
  • c. 450 BCE - c. 50 BCE
    Period of the La Tène culture in northern/western/central Europe.
  • 193 BCE
    The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
  • 58 BCE
    Julius Caesar invades Gaul. Roman influence on the European tribes begins in earnest.
  • 300 CE - 700 CE
    Migration Age in Europe.
  • c. 476 CE - 1500 CE
    The Catholic Church holds supreme power in Europe during the Middle Ages.
  • c. 1050 CE - c. 1250 CE
    Feudalism is the dominant system of land ownership in northern medieval Europe.
  • 1347 CE - 1352 CE
    The Black Death plague sweeps across Europe.
  • 1453 CE
    The Ottoman Empire closes the overland Silk Road trade routes between Europe and the East, initiating the European Age of Discovery.