The Euthydemids were a Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek dynasty of approximately 25 kings, named after its founder Euthydemos. The dynasty lasted between circa 230 BC and 10 BC, according to numismatic evidence. The numismatic emblems which characterize most this dynasty are Athena Alkidemos [Defender of the peoples] and Herakles.
Euthydemos, became king by overthrowing the Greco-Bactrian king Diodotos II circa 230 BC. He then succeeded to resist against the Seleucid king Antiochos III who eventually recognized Euthydemos as the king of Bactria. He and his son Demetrios began to conquer India and thus became famous. They are mentioned by Greek and Latin classical historians, while their successors were divided since 190 BC and, with some exceptions such as the early Indo-Greek kings Agathocles and Pantaleon, faded into obscurity.
Around 171 BC the Euthydemid dominion of Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms were shaken by the rebellion of Eucratides, who quickly conquered most regions, except the domains of king Menander. From then on the Euthydemid and Eucratid dynasties were waging continuous at war with each other, which lasted for 90 years and tore the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms apart.
The powerful king Menander succeeded to push Eucratides back to Bactria around 155 BC, but the Euthydemids never fully regained control of Bactria. When the Yuezhei c.145 BC invaded Bactria, the Eucratids retreated into the Indo-Greek possessions. An Euthydemid presence remained in India until 80 BC; when both dynasties were worsened by the powerful Indo-Saka king Maues. In defense against Maues an alliance between the two Greek dynasties seems to have taken place, led by Amyntas. After the death of Maues, numismatic evidences suggests that only the Euthydmids subsequently ruled the Indo-Greek kingdoms, until evidence of Greek presence in India fades around 10BC.
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