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Ai Khanum, the Capital of Eucratides
Article by Antoine Simonin

Ai Khanum, the Capital of Eucratides

Ai Khanum (also spelled Ai-Khanoum or Ay-Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek), was founded in the 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great and was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom...
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Definition by Antoine Simonin

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

The Greco-Bactrian kingdom refers to several dynasties and probably kingdoms of Greco-Macedonian monarchs who ruled over Bactria from 250 to 130 BCE. Foundation The Greco-Bactrian kingdom appeared in 250 BCE, when the satrap Diodotos...
Coin of Eucratides I
Image by Mark Cartwright

Coin of Eucratides I

A silver tetradrachm of the Bactrian king Eucratides I (r. c. 171–145 BCE). (Numisamiatics Museum, Athens)
Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms in Ancient Texts
Article by Antoine Simonin

Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms in Ancient Texts

The rarity of the appearance of Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms in ancient literature is one of the reasons why those states are so little-known today. Indo-Greek literature did exist, but none has been found that speaks about the...
Plan of Ai Khanum
Image by Claude Rapin

Plan of Ai Khanum

Plan of Ai Khanum as it was excavated by the D.A.F.A until 1978
Cybele Plate
Image by Museé Guimet

Cybele Plate

Plate found at Ai Khanum in northern Afghanistan, in a temple, depicting Cybele, a votive sacrifice and the sun God. 2nd century BCE. (Museé Guimet, Paris)
Indo-Greek
Definition by Antoine Simonin

Indo-Greek

The first Indo-Greek kingdom appeared circa 190 BCE may when the Greco-Bactrian king or (general for his father) Demetrios was busy in India, when his Indian possessions were divided between several kings, probably firstly in order to better...
Ancient Afghanistan
Definition by Ralf Rotheimer

Ancient Afghanistan

The ancient history of Afghanistan, a landlocked country in Central Asia, is full of fascinating cultures, from early nomadic tribes to the realms of Achaemenid Persia, the Seleucids, the Mauryans, the Parthians, and Sasanians, as well as...
Eucratid
Definition by Antoine Simonin

Eucratid

The Eucratids were a Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek dynasty of approximately 12 kings, lasting between c.171 BC and 80-70 BC, according to numismatic evidence. The numismatic emblem which characterized it were the palm and the Dioscuri (Castor...
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Definition by Antoine Simonin

Eucratidia

Eucratidia was a Greek town in Bactria, one of the easternmost area ever controlled by the Greeks, located at the modern site of Aï Khanum in North-Eastern Afghanistan. The history of this city is still rather unknown, but it seems that...
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