Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE, r. 51-30 BCE) was the last ruler of Egypt before it was annexed as a province of Rome. Although arguably the most famous Egyptian queen, Cleopatra was actually Greek and a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE) which ruled Egypt after the death of Alexander the Great (l. 356-323 BCE).

More about: Cleopatra


  • c. 69 BCE - 12 Aug 30 BCE
    Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • c. 51 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    300 Celts serve as elite bodyguards for Cleopatra VII during her reign.
  • 51 BCE
    Death of Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII Auletes.
  • 51 BCE
    Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler.
  • 49 BCE
    Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
  • 48 BCE
    Cleopatra tries to return, but her army is defeated near Pelusium.
  • 48 BCE
    Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
  • 48 BCE
    Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, war breaks out.
  • 47 BCE
    Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
  • Jan 47 BCE
    Ptolemy XIII drowns in the Nile fleeing Caesar.
  • 23 Jun 47 BCE
    Birth of Cleopatra's son, named Caesarion; Caesar is said to be the father.
  • 46 BCE
    Ptolemy XIV is recognized as Cleopatra's co-ruler again; the two are in Rome.
  • 15 Mar 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar is killed; Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV return to Egypt, where Ptolemy is soon killed and Caesarion recognized as king; first of a series of bad harvests.
  • 43 BCE
    Cleopatra gains control of Cyprus; she supports the faction of Caesar, led by the Second Triumvirate (Marc Antony, Octavian, Lepidus), in its war against the assassins, led by Brutus and Cassius.
  • 41 BCE
    Cleopatra and Mark Antony meet at Tarsus.
  • 41 BCE - 31 BCE
    Mark Antony of Rome allied with Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 41 BCE
    Cleopatra meets Mark Antony in Tarsus. The Roman needs the Egyptian queen in his war against the Parthian Empire, and returns the rule of old Ptolemaic territories to her.
  • 38 BCE
    Parts of Cilicia and Chalcis are given to Cleopatra; later, she is allowed to govern, as vassal, parts of Phoenicia, Judaea (cordial relations with king Herod), Cyrenaica, and Crete.
  • 36 BCE
    Mark Antony gives Crete as a gift to Cleopatra.
  • 34 BCE
    The Donations of Alexandria, an elaborate coronation ceremony in which Caesarion and Alexander Helios were named King of Kings and their mother Cleopatra VII was named Queen of Kings, took place in the Egyptian capital.
  • 31 BCE
    Mark Antony and Cleopatra move to Greece, where they are isolated by Octavian's admiral Agrippa; although they are able to win a tactical victory and break out of their isolated position at Actium, the campaign is a distaster and Octavian is able to achieve control of the east.
  • 31 BCE
    Cleopatra flees to Alexandria and opens negotiations with Octavian; her purpose is to save her children and keep the Ptolemaic kingdom intact.
  • 2 Sep 31 BCE
    The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
  • 1 Aug 30 BCE
    After Octavian has declined to negotiate, Cleopatra reportedly commits suicide; Mark Antony stabs himself, only later finding Cleopatra still lives, and dies.