Mesopotamian Goddesses


Joshua J. Mark
published on 10 February 2024

Mesopotamian goddesses are among the oldest in the world. Inanna is commonly referenced as the most ancient goddess, first worshipped during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE). Veneration of Inanna and the others developed throughout the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE) and Akkadian Period (2334-2218 BCE) and continued through the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BCE.

During the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE), many of these goddesses were replaced by male deities – Nisaba, goddess of writing, replaced by Nabu, son of Marduk, for example – but many were still being worshipped during the Seleucid Period (312-63 BCE) and afterwards.



Questions & Answers

Who is the oldest Mesopotamian goddess?

Inanna is the oldest Mesopotamian goddess, worshipped during the Uruk Period of 4100-2900 BCE.

When did the worship of goddesses develop in Mesopotamia?

Goddess worship developed in Mesopotamia during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE).

When did goddess worship decline in Mesopotamia?

Goddess worship declined in Mesopotamia during the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE) when they were replaced by male deities. Their worship continued on a smaller scale.

Are Mesopotamian goddesses still worshipped today?

Mesopotamian goddess worship is continued today by Neo-Pagan, Wiccan, and other groups devoted to ancient deities.
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About the Author

Joshua J. Mark
Joshua J. Mark is World History Encyclopedia's co-founder and Content Director. He was previously a professor at Marist College (NY) where he taught history, philosophy, literature, and writing. He has traveled extensively and lived in Greece and Germany.

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