The Warrior Queen Zenobia of the Palmyrene Empire

Server Costs Fundraiser 2024

Help our mission to provide free history education to the world! Please donate and contribute to covering our server costs in 2024. With your support, millions of people learn about history entirely for free every month.
$2758 / $18000


Kelly Macquire
published on 01 August 2021

The warrior queen Zenobia of the Palmyrene Empire ruled her kingdom for three years until the Roman Emperor Aurelian stopped her in her tracks. The Palmyrene Empire was an empire that broke away from the Roman Empire during the instability of the Crisis of the Third Century. It was a short-lived empire, it only survived for three years, and is named after its capital city, Palmyra. Palmyra is a city in modern-day Syria which is known as an Oasis, and the position of the city made it an important trading hub, and a prominent stop on the Silk Road where taxes were collected and people stopped to rest.

Julia Aurelia Zenobia (who was known as Septimia Zenobia after her marriage to Lucius Septimus Odaenathus, known as Odaenathus), was born in 240 CE in Palmyra, Syria. Odaenathus was made a governor of the whole eastern part of the Roman Empire, and eventually, he had enough power and prestige to effectively rule over his realm almost independent of Rome with Zenobia as his queen. Until, of course, both he and his son were assassinated by his nephew which put Zenobia’s son, Vaballathus, who was only ten years old, on the throne.

You can find all attribution and credits for images, animations, graphics and music here -

The music used in this recording is the intellectual copyright of Michael Levy, a prolific composer for the recreated lyres of antiquity, and used with the creator's permission. Michael Levy's music is available to stream at all the major digital music platforms. Find out more on:

Herbert Gustave Schmalz
Public domain

Remove Ads
Subscribe to this author

About the Author

Kelly Macquire
Kelly is a graduate from Monash University who has completed her BA (Honours) in Ancient History and Archaeology, focussing on iconography and status in Pylos burials. She has a passion for mythology and the Aegean Bronze Age.

Cite This Work

APA Style

Macquire, K. (2021, August 01). The Warrior Queen Zenobia of the Palmyrene Empire. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Chicago Style

Macquire, Kelly. "The Warrior Queen Zenobia of the Palmyrene Empire." World History Encyclopedia. Last modified August 01, 2021.

MLA Style

Macquire, Kelly. "The Warrior Queen Zenobia of the Palmyrene Empire." World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, 01 Aug 2021. Web. 18 Jul 2024.