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Emma Groeneveld
by Jackson Crawford
published on 08 January 2019

The women known as Valkyries (Old Norse 'Valkyrja') feature in countless stories of the Norse gods and heroes.

Dr. Jackson Crawford is a historical linguist and an experienced teacher of both Old Norse and Modern Icelandic. He currently teaches in the Department of Scandinavian at the University of California, Berkeley (formerly at UCLA), and he is credited in Disney’s Frozen.

This video uses reconstructed medieval Old Norse pronunciation (see ), not Modern Icelandic pronunciation (see ). For more on the differences between Old Norse and Modern Icelandic, see and for information about how linguists figure out how dead languages were pronounced, see

Jackson Crawford’s new, contemporary translation of the Poetic Edda—the most important source for the stories of the Norse gods and heroes—is available at His translation of the Saga of the Volsungs and the Saga of Ragnar Lothbrok is forthcoming in 2017.

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Cite This Work

APA Style

Crawford, J. (2019, January 08). Valkyries. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Chicago Style

Crawford, Jackson. "Valkyries." World History Encyclopedia. Last modified January 08, 2019.

MLA Style

Crawford, Jackson. "Valkyries." World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, 08 Jan 2019. Web. 01 Apr 2023.