Assyria

Definition

Assyria was the region located in the ancient Near East which, under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, reached from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) through Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and down through Egypt. The empire began modestly at the city of Ashur (known as Subartu to the Sumerians), located in Mesopotamia north-east of Babylon, where merchants who traded in Anatolia became increasingly wealthy and that affluence allowed for the growth and prosperity of the city.

More about: Assyria

Timeline

  • 1900 BCE
    Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
  • 1813 BCE - 1791 BCE
    Reign of Shamashi Adad I who drives out Amorites, secures border of Assyria, makes Ashur capital.
  • 1680 BCE
    Hurrians occupy Assyria.
  • 1472 BCE
    Mittani annexes Assyria.
  • 1400 BCE
    Assyria regains its independence.
  • 1307 BCE - 1275 BCE
    Reign of Assyrian King Adad Nirari I, Mitanni becomes vassal state.
  • c. 1250 BCE
    Shalmaneser I of Assyria conquers the kingdom of Mitanni and defeats its allies.
  • c. 1245 BCE
    Battle of Nihriya: Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria defeats Tudahalija IV of the Hittites.
  • 1244 BCE - 1208 BCE
    Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, Hittites conquered.
  • c. 1225 BCE
    Tukulti-Ninurta I sacks Babylon.
  • 1220 BCE
    Babylon is under Assyrian control.
  • 1115 BCE - 1076 BCE
    Reign of Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria who conquers Phoenicia and revitalizes the empire.
  • 912 BCE - 891 BCE
    Reign of Adad Nirari II who revitalizes kingdom and secures borders.
  • 900 BCE - 800 BCE
    Surviving sphinxes from the Assyrian civilization, usually placed as guards outside palaces.
  • 884 BCE - 859 BCE
    Rule of king Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria who moves capital from Ashur to Kalhu (Caleh).
  • 853 BCE
    Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
  • 841 BCE
    Israel pays tribute to Assyria.
  • 824 BCE - 811 BCE
    Reign of King Shamshi Adad V under whose reign civil war erupts.
  • 745 BCE - 727 BCE
    Reign of Tiglath Pileser III who restructures government and military and expands empire.
  • 729 BCE
    Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
  • 727 BCE - 722 BCE
    Reign of Shalmaneser V.
  • 722 BCE - 705 BCE
    Reign of Sargon II of Assyria. Capital moved from Kalhu to Dur-Sharrukin.
  • 722 BCE - 705 BCE
    Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
  • 722 BCE
    Israel is conquered by Assyria.
  • 705 BCE
    Sennacherib moves capital from Dur-Sharrukin to Nineveh.
  • 705 BCE - 681 BCE
    Reign of king Sennacherib of Assyria.
  • 701 BCE
    King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks the city of Lachish in Judah but fails to take the capital Jerusalem.
  • 681 BCE - 669 BCE
    Reign of Esarhaddon who expands the empire.
  • c. 676 BCE
    Scythians and Mannaens attack Assyria.
  • 671 BCE
    Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
  • 671 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
  • 668 BCE - 627 BCE
    Reign of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria.
  • 668 BCE
    Ashurbanipal succeeds his father as King of the Assyrian Empire.
  • 653 BCE
    Egypt expels Assyrians.
  • 648 BCE
    War between Assyria and the Elamites.
  • 627 BCE
    Revolts break out following the death of Ashurbanipal, empire begins to fail.
  • 627 BCE
    Death of King Ashurbanipal.
  • 612 BCE
    The great Assyrian cities of Ashur, Kalhu, and Nineveh are sacked and burned by the Medes, Babylonians, and Persian forces.
  • 612 BCE
    Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
  • 605 BCE - 549 BCE
    Babylon rules over the Assyrian regions.
  • c. 600 BCE
    Assyrians control the Fertile Crescent.
  • 549 BCE - 330 BCE
    Persian rule in the region.
  • 332 BCE - 330 BCE
    Alexander the Great invades Syria, conquers the Persians.
  • c. 312 BCE - 63 BCE
    Duration of the Seleucid Empire.
  • 115 CE - 116 CE
    The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
  • 226 CE - 650 CE
    Sassanid Empire rules the region until the Arab Conquest of 7th century CE.
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