Alexandria, Egypt

Definition

Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It was the site of the Pharos (lighthouse), one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the legendary Library of Alexandria and was once the most vital cultural center of the ancient world, rivaling even Athens, Greece.

More about: Alexandria, Egypt

Timeline

  • 332 BCE
    Alexander the Great conquers Phoenicia and turns toward Egypt.
  • Jan 331 BCE
    Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
  • 323 BCE
    Death of Alexander the Great.
  • 305 BCE - 285 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, who initiated the Great Library.
  • c. 300 BCE - c. 280 BCE
    The Lighthouse of Alexandria is built, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
  • 300 BCE
    Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
  • 282 BCE - 246 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, development of Library at Alexandria.
  • 276 BCE - 195 BCE
    Life of Eratosthenes, ancient Greek Alexandrian scholar, native of Cyrene and one of the greatest geographers in antiquity.
  • 247 BCE
    The Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
  • 48 BCE
    Pompey killed at Alexandria, Caesar declares martial law in the city.
  • 48 BCE - 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar of Rome and Cleopatra VII of Egypt in unofficial alliance.
  • 48 BCE
    Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
  • 44 BCE
    Assassination of Julius Caesar at Rome.
  • 41 BCE - 31 BCE
    Mark Antony of Rome allied with Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 34 BCE
    Mark Antony celebrates an unofficial triumph in Alexandria following his victories in Armenia.
  • 30 BCE
    Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt.
  • 30 BCE - 14 CE
    Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
  • 100 CE
    The mathematician and astronomer Menelaus of Alexandria lived.
  • 115 CE
    Destruction of Alexandria in the Kitos War.
  • 117 CE
    Restoration of Alexandria by Emperor Hadrian of Rome.
  • 132 CE
    Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible) composed at Alexandria.
  • 313 CE
    Constantine the Great issues Edict of Milan, decrees religious tolerance.
  • 314 CE
    Religious strife increases between Christians and other faiths in Alexandria.
  • 391 CE
    Christian Patriarch Theophilus destroys pagan temples in Alexandria. .
  • 415 CE
    Hypatia of Alexandria murdered by Christian mob. Scholars and scientists leave the city. .
  • 619 CE
    Alexandria is conquered by the Sassanid Persians.
  • 628 CE
    Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
  • 641 CE
    Arab Muslims under Caliph Umar take Alexandria from the Byzantine Christians.
  • 641 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Christians and Arab Muslims fight for control of Alexandria and Egypt.
  • 646 CE
    The Arab Muslims defeat the Byzantine Christians. Alexandria falls under Islamic rule. .
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