Mongol Warfare

Definition

The Mongols conquered vast swathes of Asia in the 13th and 14th century CE thanks to their fast light cavalry and excellent bowmen, but another significant contribution to their success was the adoption of their enemies' tactics and technology that allowed them to defeat established military powers in China, Persia, and Eastern Europe. Adapting to different challenges and terrain, the Mongols became adept at both siege and naval warfare, very different pursuits from their nomadic origins on the Asian steppe. In addition, diplomacy, espionage, and terror were used in equal measure to win many a battle before it had even begun. Ultimately, the Mongols would establish the largest empire the world had ever seen, and their ruthlessness in battle would cast a long shadow of fear over those they conquered with generals earning fearsome nicknames such as the 'hounds of war' and their soldiers being labelled 'the devil's horsemen.'

More about: Mongol Warfare

Timeline

  • 1205
    The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
  • 1205 - 1255
    Life of the Mongol military commander and grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan.
  • 1206 - 1368
    The Mongol Empire rules in Central and East Asia.
  • 1206 - 1227
    Reign of Genghis Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1209
    The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
  • 1209
    The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
  • 1211
    The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
  • 1212 - 1215
    The Mongols attack Song China, sacking over 90 cities.
  • 1214
    The Jurchen Jin state signs a short-lived peace treaty with the Mongol Empire and is obliged to pay tribute.
  • 1215
    The Mongols attack the Tangut state of Xi Xia.
  • 1215
    The Mongols sack Beijing.
  • 1215
    The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin state in northern China.
  • 1218 - 1220
    The Mongols attack the Khwarazm Empire in Central Asia.
  • 1219
    A Goryeo army allies with the Mongols to attack the Khitan in northern Korea.
  • 1221
    The Mongols attack northern Afghanistan.
  • 1223
    The Mongols defeat an army of the Kievan Rus at Kalka.
  • 1229 - 1241
    Reign of Ogedei Khan as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1230 - 1231
    The Mongols attack the Jurchen Jin State.
  • 1231 - 1232
    Ogedei Khan leads a Mongol invasion into Korea.
  • 1233
    Kaifeng, capital of the Jurchen Jin State, falls after a lengthy siege by the Mongols.
  • Feb 1234
    The Mongols attack and conquer the Jurchen Jin State in northern China.
  • 1235
    The Mongols invade northern Iraq and western Asia
  • 1236 - 1242
    Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
  • 21 Dec 1237
    The city of Ryazan (Riazan) is besieged and captured by the Mongols.
  • 1238
    The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
  • 7 Feb 1238
    The Mongols capture the city of Vladimir.
  • 23 Mar 1238
    The Mongols capture the city of Torshok.
  • 6 Dec 1240
    The Mongols capture Kiev.
  • 9 Apr 1241
    The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
  • 10 Apr 1241 - 11 Apr 1241
    The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
  • Dec 1241
    The Mongols capture Buda and Pest.
  • Dec 1241
    The Mongols capture the great city of Gran (Esztergom) in Hungary.
  • 1253 - 1260
    A Mongol army led by Hulegu invades Persia and the Middle East.
  • 1256
    The Mongols defeat the Ismailis (aka the Assassins) in Persia.
  • 1257
    The Mongols invade Vietnam.
  • 1257
    The Mongols conquer the Dali kingdom in southern China.
  • 1258
    An uprising restores the monarchy in Korea and makes peace with the Mongol Empire.
  • 1258
    The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
  • Dec 1259
    The Mongols besiege and capture Aleppo in Syria.
  • 1260 - 1294
    Reign of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1260
    Battle of Ain Jalut; Mongol advance to the heartland of Islam is halted.
  • 1260 - 1264
    Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1262
    Kublai Khan captures Karakorum after his rival nAriq Boke (1219-1266 CE) used it as his base.
  • 1268
    Kublai Khan resumes the Mongol attacks on Song Dynasty China.
  • 1270
    Part of northern Korea is conquered by the Mongol Empire.
  • 1273
    Xiangyang falls into Mongol hands.
  • 1275 - 1279
    The Mongols led by Kublai Khan attack and conquer the last remnants of Song China.
  • 28 Mar 1276
    Lin'an, the capital of the Song Dynasty, is captured by a Mongol army.
  • 1277
    The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty invade Burma.
  • 19 Mar 1279
    The Mongols complete their conquest of Song Dynasty China with victory at the naval battle at Yaishan.
  • 1281
    The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China invade Vietnam for a second time.
  • 1286
    The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Vietnam.
  • 1287
    The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty China re-invade Burma.
  • 1292
    A Mongol/Yuan Dynasty naval force attacks Java.
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