Fertile Crescent Timeline

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  • 9000 BCE
    Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
  • 9000 BCE
    Wild sheep flocks are managed in the Zagros mountains.
  • 7700 BCE
    First domesticated wheats in the Fertile Crescent.
  • c. 6500 BCE
    Cultivation of peas in the Eastern Mediterranean.
  • 4300 BCE
    The rise of the cities by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
  • 3500 BCE
    Image of the breed of dog, the Saluki, appears on ceramics as household pet.
  • 2334 BCE - 2279 BCE
    Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
  • c. 2300 BCE
    Wide spread production and use of soap.
  • 2000 BCE
    Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
  • c. 2000 BCE
    Babylon controls Fertile Crescent.
  • 1900 BCE
    Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
  • c. 1900 BCE - c. 1400 BCE
    Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
  • 1894 BCE
    Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
  • 1795 BCE - 1750 BCE
    Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
  • 1787 BCE
    Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.
  • c. 1772 BCE
    The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
  • c. 1760 BCE - c. 1757 BCE
    Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.
  • 1680 BCE
    Hurrians occupy Assyria.
  • 1595 BCE
    King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
  • 1550 BCE
    The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni is founded.
  • 1500 BCE
    Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
  • 1472 BCE
    Mittani annexes Assyria.
  • 1400 BCE
    Assyria regains its independence.
  • 1350 BCE - 1250 BCE
    The Hittite Empire is at its peak.
  • c. 1321 BCE
    Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
  • 1285 BCE
    Peak of Hittite power.
  • 1220 BCE
    Babylon is under Assyrian control.
  • 1200 BCE
    Phrygians invade Anatolia and destroy the Hittite Empire.
  • 1080 BCE
    Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
  • 1000 BCE
    Chaldeans occupy Ur.
  • 853 BCE
    Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
  • 734 BCE
    Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
  • 729 BCE
    Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
  • 722 BCE - 705 BCE
    Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
  • c. 600 BCE
    Assyrians control the Fertile Crescent.
  • c. 539 BCE
    Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).
  • 334 BCE
    Alexander the Great invades and conquers the Fertile Crescent.
  • 116 CE
    Invasion and annexation of the Fertile Crescent region by Rome under Trajan.