European Colonization of the Americas Timeline
c. 980 - c. 1030
Norse settlement established in Newfoundland, North America, by Leif Erikson.
The Ottoman Empire closes the overland Silk Road trade routes between Europe and the East, initiating the European Age of Discovery.
1492 - 1504
Christopher Columbus makes four voyages to the New World; opens the way for European colonization of the Americas.
Brazil is claimed for Portugal by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
1519 - 1521
Hernán Cortés of Spain conquers the Aztec nation of Mexico.
1534 - 1535
North American region of Canada claimed for France by Jacques Cartier.
The Inca of South America are conquered by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
1587 - 1590
English colony of Roanoke in North America established and fails.
1607 - 1608
English Popham colony established in present day state of Maine, North America; fails after 14 months.
1607 - 1699
Colony of Jamestown succeeds as the first permanent English settlement in North America.
1609 - 1624
Hudson River Valley and parts of present-day New York State and Canada claimed by Henry Hudson for the Netherlands.
1620 - 1691
Plymouth Colony established in modern-day Massachusetts, North America; foundational colony of the later United States.
The conquest of the Maya Civilization completed by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Ursúa.