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Charles the Simple
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Charles the Simple

Charles the Simple (Charles III of France, l. 879-929 CE, r. 893-923 CE) was king of West Francia (roughly modern-day France) toward the end of the period of Viking raids in the region. His epithet `the simple' refers to his habit of being...
Charles I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Charles I of England

Charles I of England (r. 1625-1649) was a Stuart king who, like his father James I of England (r. 1603-1625), viewed himself as a monarch with absolute power and a divine right to rule. His lack of compromise with Parliament led to the English...
Charles II of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Charles II of England

Charles II of England (r. 1660-1685) was the king of Scotland (1649-1685) before the Restoration in 1660 also made him king of England and Ireland. Charles was a charming and easygoing monarch who took a keen interest in sports, science...
Odo of West Francia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Odo of West Francia

Odo of West Francia (also known as Eudes, l. c. 856-898 CE, r. 888-898 CE) was Count of Paris and hero of the Viking Siege of Paris 885-886 CE who was shortly afterwards elected King of West Francia. He was the son of Robert The Strong (c.830-866...
Viking Raids on Paris
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Viking Raids on Paris

Throughout the 9th century CE, Viking raids on the region of Francia (roughly modern-day France) increased in frequency, destabilizing the region, and terrorizing the populace. The raids seem to have been inspired by the death of the Holy...
Schmalkaldic War
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Schmalkaldic War

The Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547) was fought between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League and the Catholic armies under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who, having failed to achieve religious unity of his subjects at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530...
Causes of the English Civil Wars
Article by Mark Cartwright

Causes of the English Civil Wars

The English Civil Wars (1642-1651) were caused by a monumental clash of ideas between King Charles I of England (r. 1625-1649) and his parliament. Arguments over the powers of the monarchy, finances, questions of religious practices and toleration...
The Legacy of Charles Martel & the Battle of Tours
Article by Christopher L. Serafin

The Legacy of Charles Martel & the Battle of Tours

The Battle of Poitiers aka the Battle of Tours took place over roughly a week in early October of 732. The opposing sides consisted of a Frankish army led by Charles Martel (r. 718-741) against an invading Muslim army under the nominal sovereignty...
Kingdom of West Francia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of West Francia

The Kingdom of West Francia (843-987 CE, also known as The Kingdom of the West Franks) was the region of Western Europe that formed the western part of the Carolingian Empire of Charlemagne (Holy Roman Emperor 800-814 CE) known as Francia...
Louis XVII of France
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Louis XVII of France

Louis XVII of France was the regnal name of Louis-Charles de France (l. 1785-1795), the younger son of King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette (l. 1755-1793). Although Louis-Charles never actually reigned as king...
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