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Oliver Cromwell
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) was an accomplished cavalry commander, then head of Parliament's New Model Army, and finally Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The latter title was awarded to Cromwell for life after the bloody...
Oliver Cromwell
Image by Samuel Cooper

Oliver Cromwell

A c. 1656 portrait of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), leader of the Parliamentarians during the English Civil Wars (1642-51) and Lord Protector after the execution of Charles I of England (r. 1625-1649). Painting by Samuel Cooper (National...
Thomas Cromwell
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Thomas Cromwell

Thomas Cromwell (l. c. 1485-1540 CE) served as chief minister to Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) from 1532 to 1540 CE. With his king and the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer (in office 1533-55 CE), Cromwell masterminded the...
Battle of Dunbar in 1650
Article by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Dunbar in 1650

The battle of Dunbar on 3 September 1650 between the English Parliament's New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) and Scotland's army led by David Leslie (c. 1600-1682) was one of the last major battles of the English Civil Wars...
Sir Thomas Fairfax
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Sir Thomas Fairfax

Sir Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (1612-1671), was the first and highly successful commander of the Parliamentarian New Model Army during the English Civil Wars (1642-1651). Fairfax's leadership, tactical prowess, and courage...
English Civil Wars
Definition by Mark Cartwright

English Civil Wars

The English Civil Wars (1642-1651) witnessed a bitter conflict between Royalists ('Cavaliers') and Parliamentarians ('Roundheads'). The Royalists supported first King Charles I of England (r. 1625-1649) and then his son Charles II, while...
Charles I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Charles I of England

Charles I of England (r. 1625-1649) was a Stuart king who, like his father James I of England (r. 1603-1625), viewed himself as a monarch with absolute power and a divine right to rule. His lack of compromise with Parliament led to the English...
Battle of Preston in 1648
Article by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Preston in 1648

The Battle of Preston between 17 and 20 August 1648 occurred during the English Civil Wars (1642-1651) and saw Oliver Cromwell lead Parliament's New Model Army to victory against an Anglo-Scottish army which supported King Charles I of England...
New Model Army
Definition by Mark Cartwright

New Model Army

The New Model Army was created in February 1645 by the Parliamentarians during the English Civil Wars (1642-1651) that turned England from a monarchy to a republic. It was a professional army in terms of its personnel, training, and leadership...
Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester

Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester (l. 1602-1671), was a Parliamentarian commander during the English Civil Wars (1642-1651). He led the Eastern Association army before the indecisive Second Battle of Newbury in 1644 led to recriminations...
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