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Chrocus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Chrocus

Chrocus (also known as Crocus) was a king of the Alemanni who invaded Roman Gaul c. 256 CE, and wreaked massive destruction, until he was defeated by the Roman legions at Arles and then executed.  Conversely, he was a king...
Tiridates I of Armenia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tiridates I of Armenia

Tiridates I (Trdat I) ruled as the king of Armenia from 63 to either 75 or 88 CE). Considered the founder of the Arsacid dynasty proper, his reign got off to a rocky start with invasions from Rome and Parthia but, once crowned in a lavish...
Isaac I Komnenos
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Isaac I Komnenos

Isaac I Komnenos was the Byzantine emperor from 1057 to 1059 CE. Although his reign was brief, he was known for being a capable and militarily astute general and emperor. As the first emperor to lead troops himself in battle in over 30 years...
The Phoenicians - Master Mariners
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Phoenicians - Master Mariners

Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean's traditional safe limits of...
The Ancient Celtic Pantheon
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Ancient Celtic Pantheon

The ancient Celtic pantheon consisted of over 400 gods and goddesses who represented everything from rivers to warfare. With perhaps the exception of Lugh, the Celtic gods were not universally worshipped across Iron Age Europe but were very...
The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean

Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor...
Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe

Trade in raw materials and manufactured goods in ancient Celtic Europe was vibrant and far-reaching, particularly regarding the centre of the continent where there was a hub of well-established trade routes. As the Celts' territory expanded...
Carthaginian Trade
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Trade

The Carthaginians, like their Phoenician forefathers, were highly successful traders who sailed the Mediterranean with their goods, and such was their success that Carthage became the richest city in the ancient world. Metals, foodstuffs...
The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE

The Siege of Acre in 1291 CE was the final fatal blow to Christian Crusader ambitions in the Holy Land. Acre had always been the most important Christian-held port in the Levant, but when it finally fell on 18 May 1291 CE to the armies of...
Ancient Celtic Torcs
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Celtic Torcs

In ancient Celtic cultures, torcs were a common form of jewellery and were made from bronze, copper, silver, and gold. Torcs were not just exquisite works of Celtic art but also identified the wearer’s status and perhaps were believed to...